Bibliographie sur les mantes          retour à la page précédente
Ce document est incomplet mais rassemble déja près de 800 titres avec leur références.
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Auteur (uniquement le premier s'il y en a plusieurs) ; année de publication; le titre de l'article ; la source ( nom du périodique) son numéro ISSN; le volume et les pages de l'article  ainsi qu'un résumé si il est informatisé. La liste est établie par les noms du premier auteur.

Adair E. W. ; 1925 ; On parthenogenesis in miomantis savignii

Source : Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte ; 0373-3289 ; 8: 104 108

Agarwal, B. L. ; 1989 ; Parasites and predators of Cletus signatus Walker (Heteroptera: Coreidae).

Source : Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology. ; 0256-971X ; 9: 1, 110-112.

abstract: The ectoparasitic mite Leptus sp. and the predators Hierodula sp. and Araneus sp. were observed to be natural enemies of the polyphagous coreid Cletus signatus in Uttar Pradesh, India. Infestation of nymphs and adults with 5-15 mite larvae caused the former to become sluggish and ultimately to die.

 

Ahmad, M., ; 1985 ; Biology of Hestiasula brunneriana Saussure (Dictyoptera: Mantidae)

Source : India Forester ; 0019-4816 ; 111: 333 338

abstract: Hestiasula brunneriana Saussure (Dictyoptera: Mantidae) is a sylvan species of mantid which prey on immature stages and adults of teak defoliators and several other forest pests. Biology and behaviour of the species were studied under laboratory conditons. Fecundity of the female and the longevity of males and females were also studied.

 

Amato, I. ; 1991 ; Praying mantises play top gun.

Source : Science (Washington DC) ; 0036-8075 ; 252: 5007, 781.

abstract: Praying mantises [Mantidae] have been shown to avoid predation by bats via an 'ultrasonic ear' buried in a groove on the underside of the abdomen, which is tuned to the high-frequency chirps of bats scanning for food. The manoeuvres used by the mantises to avoid capture are described on the basis of laboratory and field observations in New York. In a trial in Ontario, mantises whose ears were tuned to the higher frequencies of other kinds of bats were caught while those with ears sensitive to the echolocation frequencies of the local bats evaded capture.

 

Ampofo J K O. ; 1974 ; The structure of the conglobate gland in Dictyoptera.

Source : Journal of Entomology Series A General Entomology ; 0041-2409 ; 48 (2) :129-134

abstract: 7 Abb

 

Anderson, J.; ; 1877 ; Note on the floral simulation of Gongylus gongylodes LINNE.

Source : Asiat. Soc. Bengal. ; * ; 1877: 193 195

ANDRES, A. ; 1913 ; L*oothèque de l*Eremiaphila khamsin (Orthoptera Mantide).

Source : Bull. Soc. Ent. Egypte ; 0373-3289 ; 6: 72-74

ASHMEAD, W. H. ; 1880 ; Description of a new Chalcid, parasitic on Mantis Carolina.

Source : Canad.Ent. ; 0008-347X ; 18: 57-58

ASHMEAD, W. H. ; 1904 ; Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum. Classification of the Chalcid Flies (Podagrion).

Source : Publ. of the Carnegie Museum ; ; Series 21, 1(4): 394, 401-402

 

Baehr M. ; 1983 ; Die in der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München vorhandenen, von M. Perty beschriebenen Typen der Ordnung Mantodea, Saltatoria und Ensifera.

Source : SPIXIANA SUPPL (MUENCH)/ ; ; (9) : 283-290

Bakthavatsalam N. ; 1997 ; Podagrion sp. (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), an egg parasitoid of mantids in Nagaland.

Source : Journal of Biological Control ; 0970-5732 ; 9(2): 130.

abstract: The eggs of Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Saussure) were parasitised by Podagrion sp. in Nagaland. The per cent oothecae parasitised was 28 and 40.6 during 1987 and 1988, respectively.

 

Balderrama, N. ; 1971 ; Habituation of the deimatic response in the mantid (Stagmatoptera biocellata

Source : Journal of Comparative Physiology. A Sensory Neural ; 0340-7594 ; 75 (1) : 98-106

abstract: and Behavorial Physiology 5 Abb.

 

Balderrama, N. ; 1973 ; Ontogeny of the behaviour in the praying mantis

Source : Journal of Insect Physiology ; 0022-1910 ; 19: 319 336

abstract: We compared numbers and weights of oothecae, hatching success, numbers of eggs and sizes of emerging nymphs of two species of sympatric mantids (Tenodera sinensis Saussure and Mantis religiosa L.) from two different old field habitats (CHRY and AG). Hatching success and size of emerging nymphs were much greater for T. sinensis, whereas number of eggs/ootheca were about the same for both species. However, sizes of nymphs varied between oothecae of each species. Numbers and sizes of oothecae for both species were greater at CHRY than AG, probably indicating that the parental generation was less food limited at CHRY.

 

Balderson.; J ; 1988 ; Acromantis australis SAUSSURE (Mantodea: Hymenopodidae: Acro-mantidae): a new family and subfamily record for Australia.

Source : Australian Ent. Ma ; 0311-1881 ; 15(3): 81-84

abstract: 4 Abb

 

Balderson.; J ; 1984 ; Catalog of australian mantodea.

Source : Australia Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research ; ; (23) :1-18.

abstract: Organization Division of Entomology Technical Paper designated for Sphodropoda quinquedens (Macleay). The bibliography includes all references containing descriptions of species recorded or described from Australia.

 

Ball.; E.E ; 1982 ; The cercal receptor system of the praying mantid, Archimantis brunneriana Sauss. I. Cercal morphology and receptor types.

Source : Cell & Tissue Research. ; 0302-766X ; 224(1):55-70,

abstract: The cerci of the praying mantid, Archimantis brunneriana Sauss., are paired segmented sensory organs located at the tip of the abdomen. Basally the cercal segments are slightly flattened dorso-ventrally and are fused to such a degree that it is difficult to distinguish them. Distally the segments become progressively more flattened laterally and their boundaries become more obvious. Two types of sensilla are present on the cerci, trichoid sensilla and filiform sensilla. Trichoid hairs are longest on the medial side of the cerci and toward the middle of each segment while they are more uniformly distributed on the distal segments. Filiform sensilla are found at the distal end of each segment except the last and are highly variable in appearance from short and stout to long and thin. They arise from a raised base, have a fluted shaft, and some have a pore at the tip. They are innervated by from one to five dendrites, one of which is always considerably larger than the others. Some of the dendrites continue out into the shaft of the hair. Filiform hairs have fluted shafts and are mounted in a flexible membrane within a cuticular ring in a depression. They are innervated by a single large sensory neuron, the dendrite of which passes across a flattened area on the inner wall of the lumen of the hair. The dendritic sheath forms the lining of the ecdysial canal and is therefore firmly attached to the hair. The dendrite is attached to the sheath by desmosomes distally and is penetrated by projections of the sheath more proximally. A fibrous cap surrounds the dendrite and may hold it in place relative to the hair. The cercal receptor system of Archimantis is compared to those of cockroaches and crickets.

 

Ball.; E.E ; 1982 ; The cercal receptor system of the praying mantid, Archimantis brunneriana Sauss. II. Cercal nerve structure and projection and electrophysiological responses of the individual

Source : Cell & Tissue Research. ; 0302-766X ; 224(1):71-80,

abstract: The bilaterally paired cercal nerves of Archimantis brunneriana Sauss. leave the terminal ganglion posteriorly and then turn dorsally through muscles at the rear of the abdomen to enter the cerci, where each splits into two branches; successive branchings occur further distally in each cercus. In the distal nerve branches large axons tend to be grouped together. The cercal nerves are heavily wrapped in glial sheaths. Cobalt backfills of the cercal nerve reveal a projection which enters the ganglion at approximately 30 degrees to the midline and then turns parallel to it. Most of the projection remains ipsilateral but bundles of axons approach or cross the midline in 6-8 places. At the anterior end of the ganglion there are strong projections both laterally and medially. In the posterior half of the ganglion fibers run ventrally to surround two glomeruli and there is a dorsal projection in the anterior half of the ganglion. There is a strong projection anteriorly into the ventral nerve cord. The electrophysiological responses of single cercal receptors to pulses of wind were recorded in the cercal nerve or terminal ganglion. These receptors, presumed to innervate filiform hairs, were then filled with Lucifer Yellow. All had ipsilateral projections. Most receptors showed little adaptation to

 

BARNES, J. K. ; 1992 ; Life histories of Pseudogaurax species (Diptera: Chloropidae), descriptions of two new species, and ecology of Nephila cla-vipes (LINNAEUS) (Araneae: Tetragnathidae egg

Source : Journ. Nat. Hist ( Washington.) ; ; 26(4): 823-834

abstract: 3 Abb.

 

BARNES, S. N. ; 1980 ; Lamina monopolar cells of the praying mantis: Response pattern and respective fields.

Source : Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences ; 0146-0404 ; (40): 277-278

BARNES, S. N. ; 1979 ; The visual system of the praying mantis.

Source : Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences ; 0146-0404 ; (39): 88

Barrós-Pita.; J.C ; 1970 ; A fovea in the praying manti eye II Some morphological characteristics

Source : Zeit. vergl. Physiologien (Heidelberg) ; ; 67: 79 92

abstract: 8 Abb.

 

Barrós-Pita.; J.C ; 1974 ; Massed training and latent habituation of the deimatic response in the mantid

Source : EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF INSECT BEHAVIOR. ; ; 228-236

abstract: SYMPOSIUM, CANBERRA, AUST., AUG., 1972.

 

Barrós-Pita.; J.C ; 1972 ; Importancia del intervalo en la habituacion de la reaccion deimatica en Mantidos Stagmatoptera biocellata.

Source : Acta Cientifica Venezolana ; 0001-5504 ; 23 (Suppl 1) : 79

Barrows, E.M. ; 1984 ; Perch sites and food of adult Chinese mantid (Dictyoptera: Mantidae) Proc Ent Soc Wash

Source : Proceedings of the Entomological Society of ; 0013-8797 ; 86: 898 901

abstract: In old fields, most adult Chinese mantids, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis, used Cirsium vulgare or Solidago spp. as perch sites, usually being in the upper branches of these plants. In these fields and in a suburban garden, their prey included Apis mellifera, Bombus sp., Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus, Danaus plexippus, Gryllus sp., Melanoplus sp., Papilio glaucus, Polistes fuscatus and Xylocopa virginica. In the laboratory, most female mantids that ate possibly toxic D. plexippus, in addition to crickets, produced viable young. **** In old fields in Virginia and in a suburban vegetable and flower garden in Maryland, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis usually perched, fed and rested on wild plants such as Solidago spp. and Cirsium vulgare, with the exception of Liriodendron tulipifera, preferring the upper branches. A list is given of the insect species consumed, which included Apis mellifera and Polistes fuscatus and also Danaus plexippus, which birds and other predators found distasteful or

 

Barrows, E.M. ; 1982 ; Observation, description, and quantification o behavior: a study of praying mantids In Insect behavior: a sourceboo of laboratory and field exercises

Source : Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA ; * ; 8 20

abstract: 3 Abb

 

Bartley.; J.A ; 1982 ; Mantid (Mantodea) defense of egg nest.

Source : Annals of the Entomological Society of America ; 0013-8746 ; 75: 484

Bartley.; J.A ; 1982 ; Movement patterns in adult male and female mantids, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure (Orthoptera: Mantodea)

Source : Environmental Entomology ; 0046-225X ; 11: 1108 1111

abstract: 2 Abb

 

Bazyluk W. ; 1977 ; Fauna Polski - Fauna Poloniae. Tom 6. Blattodea et Mantodea. Karaczany y modliszki.

Source : Panstowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warsaw, Poland ; ; 173 pp

abstract: Notes are given on the morphology, bionomics, habits and world and local distribution of species of Blattodea that occur in Poland. Keys are provided to the genera and species. Similar notes are given on Mantis religiosa, particular attention being given to M. r. polonica Bazyluk. Notes 185 fig.

 

Bazyluk W. ; 1993 ; Blattodea Mantodea and Ensifera Orthoptera from Mongolia

Source : Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) ; 0003-6862/0003-4541 ; 44 (1-7): 3-15.

abstract: On the base of the materials collected in Mongolia by the expeditions of the Institute of Zoology PAS in Warsaw 23 species of orthopteroid insects are recorded: Mantodea - 1, Blattodea - 2 and Ensifera (Grylloptera) - 20 species, among them Gampsocleis gratiosa burakowskii ssp. n.

 

Bazyluk W. ; 1977 ; Blattodea et Mantodea (Insecta). - Polska Akademia Nauk

Source : Fauna Polski ; ; 6: 1-175 (109-167)

abstract: 185 (40) Abb.The external morphology, anatomy, development, ethology, ecology and phenology of Blattodea and Mantodea are described. Data on their paleontology, phylogeny, evolution, systematics, economic significance and geographic distribution are also presented. The collection, preservation and preparation of specimens are also described. Keys for determining superfamilies Blaberoidea, Blattoidea, Epilamproidea, families, genera and species of Blattodea and descriptions of the systematics, morphological indices and world-wide distribution of 20 spp. are included. Systematic data on Mantis (Mantis) religiosa (L.) and M. (M.) religiosa polonica, Bazyluk, found in Poland,

 

Bazyluk W. ; 1976 ; Cockroaches and Mantids Blattodea and Mantodea.

Source : Katalog Fauny Polski ; ; (26) : 1-31.

BEEBE, W. ; 1952 ; An annoted list of the mantids of Trinidad, B. W. I. (Orthoptera Mantoidea)

Source : Zoologica, New York Zoological society ; 0044-507X ; 37(930): 245-258

abstract: espèces non traitées 2 Abb.

 

Beier M. ; 1964 ; H. G. Bronn*s Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs. Blattopteroidea-Mantodea, III. Abt.: Insecta-Arthropoda.

Source : H.G.Bronns (ed.). . Buch Geest & Portig Leipzig. / ; * ; 5(6): 850-970

abstract: Akademie Verlagsges. 40 Abb.

 

Beier M. ; 1973 ; A new Stenopyga species from Rhodesia. Mantodea.

Source : Arnoldia Rhodesia (Salisbury) ; ; 6 (19) : 1-2

Beier M. ; 1976 ; Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Toxodera und Paratoxodera.

Source : Revue Suisse de Zoologie ; ; 83 (2) : 93-400

Beier M. ; 1968 ; Mantiden von der Insel Rennell (Rhombodera rennellana nov. spec).

Source : Nat. Hist. Rennell Island, British Solomon Islands, ; ; 5 : 79-80

Beier M. ; 1969 ; On some mantidae from Malawi.

Source : Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien Serie B ; 0255-0105 ; 73 : 199-207

abstract: Botanik und Zoologie

 

Beier M. ; 1965 ; Über einige Mantiden von der insel prince of wales

Source : Pacific insects (Honolulu.) ; 0030-8714 ; 7(3):449-452

abstract: espèces non traitées

 

Beier M. ; 1935 ; Eine neue Palaeophotina aus Madagaskar.

Source : Arb. morph. taxon. Entomol (Berlin) ; ; 2(1): 50-51

abstract: Source Arb. Morph. Ent. Berlin-Dahlem, Band2, 1935, N°1, Page 50

 Tite Original : Eine neue Palaeophitna aus Madagaskar.

 Traduction :

 Une nouvelle Palaeophotina en provenance de Madagascar Par Max Beier , Naturhistorischen Museum, Wien. Dans un petit échantillon de mantes, qui m'a été transmis par le Deutschen entomologischen institut Berlin-Dahlem afin que je l'étudie, se trouvait un spécimen qui appartient à une nouvelle espèce de Palaeophotina Werner.

 Du point de vue de la position systématique du genre Palaeophotina Werner, il faut d'abord présciser que malgré sa similitude avec les Photiniés (néotropicales), ce qui induisit en erreur Werner, elle n'a rien en commun avec ces dernières, mais qu'elle constitue un représantant aberant des Polyspilota éthiopiennes (Mantini) dont elle se distingue avant tout par les ailles hyalines qui ne sont pas _________(V. Bändern) dans le champs costal. Le choix malheureux de ce nom qui comme d'autres noms semblables(Papuspilota, Papupopa, entre autres), donnés par werner peut conduire facilement a d'autre erreurs, et ne doit pas nous induire en erreur

 Palaeophotina madecassa n. sp.

 Male vert. Ecusson frontal à peu près moitié plus large que haut. Yeux fortement proéminents. Vertex avec deux sillon très prononcés. Antennes claires à la base, puis brunies. Le pronotum n'est rétréci que vers l'arrière, la prozone est aussi large aue l'élargissement supra coxal, les cotés sont légèrement élargis sous forme de lamelles, (la prozone) et a peu près aussi longue que la plus grande largeur du pronotum ; la métazone est plus courte aue les coxa antérieurs ; les bords sont très fins ( pas épais) dentelés (zandeln) par intervalles réguliers. Les élytres verdâtres, Hyalins seule la base du champ costal est translucide (subopak). Les veines sont vertes, les veines du champ costal présentent une réticulation assez dense. Les ailes sont parfaitement hyalines, aves des nervures vertes. Les deux coxa antérieurs sont finement dentelés, les (lobes , appendices, pointes ?) apicaux (appicallappen) intérieurs (fernés/ obtus). Les fémurs avec 4 épines discoïdales et 4 épines extérieures, les grandes épinesinternes sont noires à la pointe avec une tache à la base ; en dehors de cela une grande tache noire se trouve sur la face intérieure des fémurs dans la région la région du sillon de la griffe qui s'étend depuis la première épine discoïdale jusqu'à la première grande épine interne. Tibias avec 10 épines externe et 14 épines internes . les pattes médianes et postérieures sont fines avec des cils courts. Le métatarse des pattes postérieures sont aussi longs que (tous) les tarses mis ensemble. La plaque suranale transversale. Les cerques sont longs et minces. Dimensions : Male Longueur du corps 41 mm Pronotum longueur 11 mm Pronotum largeur 4,5 mm Métazone longueur 8 mm Elytres 39 mm Fémur 11 mm

 

 

Beier M. ; 1965 ; Die Mantodeen Neu-Guineas

Source : Pacific insects (Honolulu.) ; 0030-8714 ; 7(3):473-502

abstract: espèces non traitées

 

Bennett B G. ; 1984 ; Blue, red and yellow insects (Orthodera ministralis).

Source : New Zealand Entomologist ; ; 8 : 88-90

abstract: Notes are given on yellow, blue and red examples of 7 spp. of normally green insects in New Zealand. These records include the orders: Mantodea, Plecoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera and Lepidoptera. Results of a breeding experiment with a yellow praying mantis, Orthodera ministralis (Fabricius), are discussed. The other 6 spp. are Stenoperla prasina, Caedicia simplex, Siphanta acuta, Kikihia ochrina, Nezara viridula and Aenetus virescens.

 

Berenbaum, M.R. ; 1984 ; Mantids Tenodera ardifolia sinensis and milkweed bugs Oncopeltus fasciatus efficacy of aposematic coloration against invertebrate predators.

Source : American Midland Naturalist ; 0003-0031 ; 111 (1) : 64 68

abstract: 4 Abb After attacking and consuming milkweed bugs (O. fasciatus) raised on seeds of milkweed (A.syriaca), the mantid Tenodera ardifolia sinensis regurgitates and shows signs of poisoning by cardenolides, secondary substances sequestered by the bugs from their host plants. After several encounters, mantids refuse to attack milkweed bugs altogether; they even refuse to attack palatable and non-toxic O. fasciatus raised on seeds of sunflower, a plant lacking cardenolides. This is the 1st report of the efficacy of automimicry as a defense against invertebrate predators, and the

 

Bin, F. ; 1985 ; Phoresy in an egg parasitoid: Mantibaria seefelderiana (De Stef.-Per.) (Hym. Scelionidae)./abscent de herman 1998

Source : Meeting Atti XIV Congresso Nazionale Italiano di ; ; 901-902

abstract: Entomologia [...] Union of Biological Sciences. Palermo - Erice - Bagheria, 28 maggio-1 giugno 1985. Notes are given on the phoretic parasitism of Mantis religiosa by the ovipositing females of Mantibaria seefelderiana in the Mediterranean Basin and on the morphological features by which the scelionid is adapted to this form of parasitism. M. seefelderiana had 1 generation a year and the larvae overwintered within the host egg, the adult emerging when adult mantids were available. When a mantid host was found, the mated scelionid female mounted it and removed its own wings, remaining on the host for up to several months, feeding under its wings on its body fluids and moving towards the genital opening in order to inject its own eggs into those of the host as they were laid.

 

Birchard, G.F. ; 1991 ; Water vapor and oxygen exchange of praying manti (Tenodera aridifolia sinensis) egg

Source : Physiological Zoology ; 0031-935X ; 64(4): 960-972

abstract: Mantid egg cases must be capable of preventing desiccation of the developing eggs for 5-6 mo while allowing adequate respiratory gas exchange for timely hatching. This investigation examined water vapor, oxygen, and thermal exchange of Chinese mantis (Tenodera aridifolia sinensis) egg cases. Water vapor conductance was 0.277 mg .cntdot. d-1 .cntdot. mmHg-1. Results of experiments with altered vapor pressure gradients, moving air, and hypobaria were consistent with water vapor loss by simple gaseous diffusion. Experiments at 100% relatively humidity showed a linear increase in the internal egg case temperature with development, peaking more than 0.3.degree.C above ambient temperature before hatching. Egg case O2 consumption increased with increasing hatchling mass. Oxygen consumption at 25.degree.C increased linearly with incubation time and for a case producing 1 g of hatchings peaked at 537.5 .mu.L .cntdot. h-1. The Q10's for O2 consumption between 15.degree. and 25.degree.C were typical of insects. Calculations using diffusive gas exchange equations indicate the high resistance to water vapor flux does not

 

Birkhead, T. ; 1988 ; Life and loves of a sexual cannibal

Source : New Scientist (June 16): 63-66. ; ; (6): 63 -66

abstract: 7 Abb

 

Birkhead, T.R., ; 1988 ; Sexual Cannibalism in the praying mantis Hierodula membranacea BURMEISTER,

Source : Behaviour (Oxford) ; 0005-7959 ; 106(1-2): 112-118

abstract: 2 Abb

 

BITSCH, J. ; 1973 ; Systeme nerveux et endocrine de la tete des Insectes.

Source : Traite de Zoologie. Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie. - ; ; 8(1): 1-799 (61-91)

abstract: Masson et Editeurs (Paris) Abb. 1-416 (26-39)

 

Blatchley, W.S ; 1920 ; Orthoptera of northeastern America, with espicial references of the faunas of Indiana and

Source : The NaturePublishing Company, INDIANAPOLIS ; ; 114-147

abstract: espèces non traitées 4 Abb.

 

Bohra, P. ; 1996 ; Dictyoptera of the Thar Desert.

Source : Faunal diversity in the Thar Desert: gaps in research. ; 81-7233-118-5 ; 167-170

abstract: Scientific Publishers, Jodphur, India A checklist is presented of the dictyopteran (Blattaria and Mantodea) fauna of the Thar Desert area of Rajasthan, India. A number of new records for this area are claimed by the authors.

 

Bonfils, J ; 1969 ; Catalogue raisonne des insectes des Antilles Francaises part 2 Dictyoptera Blattaria and

Source : Annales de Zoologie Ecologie Animale ; ; 1 (2) : 107-120

abstract: 13 Abb.

 

Bonfils, J ; 1967 ; Une espèce nouvelle du genre Oligonyx Saussure:description et notes biologiques (Dict.).

Source : Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France ; 0037-928X ; 244-247

abstract: 1abb

 

Bonnet et Finot ; 1885 ; Mission scientifique Tunisie, 1883-1884. Cataloque Raisonne des Orthopteres de la Regence de Tunis.

Source : Typographic et Lithographic, Boehm et Fils (Montpellier) ; ; 4: 5-23, 77-78

BORDAGE, E. ; 1899 ; The Regeneration of limbs in the Mantidae, and the constant occurrence of a Tetramerous Tarsus in limbs regenerated after self-mutilation among the Orthoptera

Source : Ann. Mag. Na Hist. (London.) ; 0374-5481 ; 4(7): 115-118

BORDAGE, E. ; 1901 ; Contribution a l*etude de la régénération des appendices chez les Arthropodes.

Source : Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France ; 0037-928X ; 11: 304-307

BORDAS, M. L. ; 1907 ; Les glandes salivaires de la Mante religieuse.

Source : Mem. Soc. Zool. France, ( Paris) ; ; 20: 91-106,

abstract: 12 Abb.

 

BORDAS, M. L. ; 1906 ; Anatomie et structure histologique des glandes mandibulaires des Mantes (Mantis

Source : Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. (Paris) ; ; 60: 437-441

abstract: 1 Abb.

 

Bowdish, T.I. ; 1993 ; Visual cues used by mantids in learning aversion to aposematically colored prey

Source : American Midland Naturalist ; 0003-0031 ; 129 (2) :215 222

abstract: We experimentally tested visual cues used by the mantid (Tenodera ardifolia) in learning aversion to noxious prey. For 2 wk, we repeatedly presented mantids with milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus fasciatus) that were fed cardenolide- containing seeds of the milkweed, Asclepias syriaca. Milkweed bugs were painted with one of four color patterns: solid black, solid orange, half black and half orange, and alternately striped with orange and black. A fifth treatment included naturally colored (orange and black mottling), unpainted bugs. As mantids gained experience with unpalatable prey, they became significantly more hesitant to strike and struck less frequently. Furthermore, our data suggest mantids presented prey with broken patterns hesitate to strike longer than those presented prey with solid patterns. We conclude that this invertebrate predator can learn to delay attacks on distasteful prey and that pattern in

 

Brackenbury, J. ; 1990 ; Wing movements in the bush cricket Tettigoni viridissima and the mantis Ameles spallanziana during natural leapin

Source : Journal of Zoology (London) ; 0022-5460 ; 220: 593 602

abstract: The movements of the wings during natural jumps made by Tettigonia viridissima and Ameles spallanziana are described from observations in the field in Spain using high-speed flash photography; additional data were obtained for Oecanthus pellucens. In all cases, the wings were usually extended before the hind tarsi left the ground. In most jumps, the 1st downstroke of the wings was completed before take-off and the wings probably contributed directly to the initial propulsion. All species showed a 'peel' variation of the 'clap and fling' mechanism in the hind-wing

 

Brackenbury, J. ; 1991 ; Wing kinematics during natural leaping in th mantids Mantis religiosa and Iris oratoria

Source : Journal of Zoology (London) ; 0022-5460 ; 223: 341 356

abstract: High speed flash photography was used to analyse wing movements of Mantis religiosa and Iris oratoria at the moment of take-off during natural leaping. Wing kinematics are compared with those of the similarly designed locust wing. Iris oratoria showed strong coupling between leg extensor and wind depressor muscle activity immediately prior to take-off, with a possible enhancement of jump momentum. A 'clap and peel' was observed in the hind wings of both species during the first downstroke. Supination in the mantid forewing is accomplished by a backward rotation of the whole of the main wing plate about the claval furrow. Both fore- and hind wings show pronounced ventral flexure at the lower point of stroke reversal. Camber was developed in the hind wing during the upstroke as well as the downstroke. Possible roles of the claval furrow and transverse flexion in protecting the forewing base against torsional forces

 

Brechtel F. ; 1996 ; On the distribution of Mantis religiosa (Linne, 1758) (Mantidae) in Germany.

Source : Carolinea ; 0176-3997 ; 54(0): 73-90

abstract: All known records, completed by some new ones, of Mantis religiosa (LINNE, 1758) from Germany and some neighbouring districts are presented. Existence, endangering factors and protection measures are discussed with special remarks to the variability of the distribution area.

 

Brousse Gaury P. ; 1968 ; Chez les Dictyopteres Mantidae, description d arcs reflexes neuro-endocriniens depuis les

Source : Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l ; 0567-655X ; 267 (18) : 1468-1470

abstract: Academie des Sciences - D: Sciences Naturelles

 

Brunner, D. ; 1990 ; Morphological adaptations to an unusual defensive strategy in the mantid Orthoderella- ornata Insecta Mantidae.

Source : Journal of Zoology (London) ; 0022-5460 ; 222 (1): 129-136.

abstract: The behaviour of Orthoderella ornata Giglio Tos, 1897, a cryptically coloured mantid, is described wih reference to some morphological adaptations that conceal the typical insect outline. The modification of the typical morphology of the head in mantids is analysed with special mention of the internal structure, the tentorium, and by comparison with the disposition of two other species with a different defensive strategy. The hypothesis that O. ornata has short legs in correlation with its resting position is supported by a morphometric comparison with five other species of mantids which

 

Bullaro M. ; 1999 ; Thoracic and prothoracic leg neuromuscular system of the praying mantid, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister).

Source : Journal of Comparative Neurology ; 0021-9967 ; 409(2):325-38

abstract: Historically, praying mantids have attracted attention because of their dramatic prey capture behavior, loosely termed the strike. However, little is known about the neuromuscular organization that underpins the behavior. Although once thought to be quite stereotyped, recent data indicate that the strike is quite plastic and can be aimed accurately within a relatively large three-dimensional space. Hence, successful prey capture requires the integration of (1) visual information, indicating prey has been recognized; and (2) proprioceptive information, indicating head and prothorax (i.e., visual field) position and initial leg positions. This study was undertaken as part of a larger program examining how such sensory information is integrated with the appropriate motor systems. Our goals were (1) to describe the gross thoracic and foreleg neuromuscular system of Sphodromantis lineola and (2) to identify the soma locations of the motor neurons associated with the largest leg nerve, N4, which travels the length of each leg. We found that the thoracic and foreleg neuromusculature of S. lineola are similar but not identical to what is known about just three other species of mantid, and that motor neuron somata associated with N4 are arranged in stereotypical, bilaterally

 

Burrmeister hermann ; 1838 ; Handbush der entomologie

Source : Bei Theod. Chr. Friedr. Enstin. ; ; 517 553

Buttenhoffe P. ; 1995 ; Caudata: Bolitoglossa rufescens (northern Banana salamander). Predation.

Source : Herpetological Review ; 0018-084X ; 26(4):197

Cerda, F. J. ; 1996 ; Mantodea de Venezuela. Generos y lista preliminar de especies parte II: familia Mantidae (subfamilias Liturgousinae y Thespinae.)

Source : Boletin de Entomologia Venezolana ; ; 11: 2, 73-87

abstract: A revision of the genera of the Liturgousinae and Thespinae of the Mantidae of Venezuela is presented. Seven genera and sixteen species (3 new records) are cited. Keys to neotropical subfamilies, tribes and genera, and descriptions for each taxon are also presented.

 

Cerda, F. J. ; 1996 ; Mantodea de Venezuela: generos y lista preliminar de especies parte III: familia Mantidae (subfamilias Oligonychinae, Angelinae y Mantinae)

Source : Boletin de Entomologia Venezolana ; ; 11: 2, 89-101

abstract: Six genera (4 new records) and 10 species (2 new records and 4 undescribed) of the subfamilies Oligonychinae, Angelinae and Mantinae of the family Mantidae from Venezuela are cited. Keys to Neotropical genera and

 

Charnov, E.L. ; 1976 ; Optimal foraging: attack strategy of a manti

Source : American Naturalist ; 0003-0147 ; 110: 141 151

abstract: A simple model of breadth of diet was developed for a random-encounter situation. Predictions made by the model were compared to the behavior of a real predator, the mantid, Hierodula crassa. This mantid supported the predicted behavior. The final section showed that, even though the behavior was as predicted, several alternative explanations were not excluded. In fact, at least with this type of predator, the foraging behavior may reflect several ultimate

 

Chattopadhyay A K. ; 1994 ; Anti-predator strategy of larval aggregation pattern in Aspidomorpha miliaris (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera).

Source : Entomon ; 0377-9335 ; 19 (3-4) : 125-130

abstract: The larvae of a tortoise beetle, Aspidomorpha miliaris (F.) (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) remain in clusters, each in the form of a disc during resting periods. Most of the members of a cluster react synchronously by moving the tip of their exuviae attached to their tail upward to any object approaching them thereby simulating a giant spider. During midday feeding, the larvae disperse and arrange themselves in a linear fashion. The palatability of the larvae to probable predators available in their environment, was tested by offering the larvae individually as well as in natural clusters to lizards, birds, mantids and spiders. The larvae were found to be unpalatable to lizards, birds and mantids probably because of their feeding on toxic plants, Ipomoea fistulosa Mart, ex. Spiders were found to prey on an isolated larva but not on a cluster. The grubs in cluster appeared to evade predation by spiders by a sort of cooperative

 

Chopard, L. ; 1938 ; Mission scientifique de l'Omo, Orhtoptera, 1- Dictyoptera, Phasmodea, Ensifera. tome IV

Source : Editions du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (PARIS) ; ; 4 (33) : 89 134

abstract: espèces non traitées

 

Chopard, L. ; 1943 ; Faune de l*empire Français, Vol I Orthoptéroïdes de L*Afrique du Nord.

Source : Librairie Larose ; ; 63- 86

Chow, Y. S. ; 1989 ; Protective chemicals in caterpillar survival.

Source : Experientia. ; 0014-4754 ; 45: 4, 390-392

abstract: Larvae of Papilio memnon heronus [P. memnon] and Cerura erminea menciana [C. menciana] were exposed to females of the mantid Hirodula patellifera for varying intervals of time up to 24 h in natural habitats in Taiwan to compare their defence behaviour. P. memnon has an eversible cervical gland or osmeterium in an anterior position on the head and produces volatile acids (isobutyric and 2-methylbutyric acids), while C. menciana has an eversible tube in a posterior position on the abdominal end, but does not secrete acids. Only the Papilio larvae were able to escape from the predator; all the Cerura larvae were dead within 24 h. It is concluded that the mimicry of the P. memnon larva by that of C. menciana does not appear to be an effective mechanism for protecting the latter against

 

Chu G-Z. ; 1994 ; The predation of birds on five species of overwinter insects in small area of poplar

Source : Acta Zoologica Sinica ; 0001-7302 ; 40 (4) : 363-369

abstract: Winter community composition of birds and their predation on five species of wintering insects in a small area of poplar plantation were investigated from mid-November to the end of April in 1991-1992 and 1992-1993 at Yinan Forest Farm (118'29'E, 35'32'N), Yinan County, Shandong Province. 11 bird species were observed and the mean density of total birds was 4.4 individuals per ha. The main bird species pecking insects on trees was the Greater-pied woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) and its mean density was about 0.46 individuals per ha. In the winter of 1991-1992, the average densities of the larvae of poplar clearwing (Paranthrene tubaniformis), the cocoon of slug moth (Chidocampa flavescens) and the oothecas of mantids (Hierodula patellifera, Paratenodera angustipennis and P. aridifolia) were 91.4, 15.9 and 56.0 individuals per ha. and the general predated percentage was 59.5%, 70% and 66% respectively. For the larvae of poplar clearwing and the oothecas of mantids, there were significant positive correlations between the predated number and the date expressed in the ordinal number of ten-day periods from the last ten-day of November to the second ten-day of February, and there were significant negative correlations from the last ten-day of February to the last ten-day of April. In the winter of 1992-1993, the average densities of those overwintering insects mentioned above were 37.6, 1.1 and 13.2 individuals per ha. respectively. The general predated percentage was 44.8% for the larvae of poplar clearwing and 56% for the oothecas of mantids. The correlations between the predated number and the date were slight. In addition, the difference between the predated percentages caused by the positions of overwinter insects on the trees and the effects of some parasitic insects on the birds

 

Cloarec A. ; 1984 ; Mechanisms implied in predator prey distance estimation in Ranatra.

Source : Behavioural Processes ; 0376-6357 ; 9 (2-3) :123-134

abstract: Data from previous experiments on predator-prey distance estimation during ontogeny are compared to theoretical interpretations. In Ranatra the relationships between performance (maximum reactive distances), effectors (length of forelegs) and receptors (eyes) do not remain constant during nymphal development, contrary to mantids (Maldonado et al., 1973). The hypothesis of an automatic morphological adaptation occurring after each molt cannot be retained. Burkhardt et al.'s (1973) theoretical analysis of binocular vision in insects was applied to Ranatra: for the 1st 4 nymphal instars, the calculated limits of binocular vision coincide with maximum reactive distances. This could explain why these animals do not react to prey items presented at distances equal to the length of their forelegs before the 5th instar. The theoretical limits of binocular vision are further away than the maximum capture distances and the

 

Cockell, C. S. ; 1989 ; Survey of sorghum earhead bug and its natural enemies in Karnataka.

Source : Journal of Biological Control ; 0970-5732 ; 3: 1, 13-16.

abstract: A survey of Calocoris angustatus and its natural enemies conducted between 1977 and 1980 in 8 sorghum growing districts in Karnataka revealed the presence of only one species with colour variations in all the districts. The mirid population was higher in the kharif season in Mysore, Bijapur, Chitradurga, Bellary, Dharwad and Belgaum districts compared to other districts. During summer, the maximum incidence of the mirids was recorded at Mysore (16.55), whereas during the rabi season it was highest in Bijapur (24). The natural enemies found in the survey were the formicids Camponotus compressus, and C. paria, the reduviid Rhinocoris fuscipes, the lygaeid Geocoris tricolor, the mantid Hierodula sp., erythraeids, 16 species of spiders and the entomogenous fungus Cephalosporium sp. The

 

Coombs, M. ; 1994 ; Seasonality and host relationships of insect associated with oothecae of Archimantis latistyla (Serville) (Mantodea,Mantidae)

Source : Journal of the Australian Entomological Society = austr. ; 0004-9050 ; 33: 295 298

abstract: The seasonal incidence of insects associated with oothecae of Archimantis latistyla was studied from August 1991 to July 1992 at Armidale, N.S.W. Three species of insect, in addition to A. latistyla nymphs, were recorded emerging from oothecae. These were a torymid parasitoid Podagrion sp., a chloropid fly Gaurex sp., and a dermestid beetle Orphinus sp. A. latistyla adults deposited oothecae from mid summer (January) through to early autumn (April). Podagrion parasitise newly laid oothecae. Sex allocation by Podagrion was highly female-biased. Sex ratios (proportion male) of between 0.11 and 0.40 were most common. Following emergence of A. latistyla nymphs and of Podagrion, oothecae were utilized by Gaurex and Orphinus. Peak occurrence of these two species occurred during winter and early spring (May to September). Both-species appeared to feed largely as scavengers within the oothecae.

 

Copeland J. ; 1979 ; Prey capture in mantids: non stereotyped component of lunge

Source : Journal of Insect Physiology ; 0022-1910 ; 25: 263 269

abstract: The praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Sauss. strikes at prey with the pincer-like motion of its prothoracic legs. During strike the mantis moves its body forward toward the prey in a lunge propelled by its four walking legs. Using a tethered mantis preparation, the lunge produced by the movement of the walking legs was studied. It was found that lunge is correctly oriented toward prey no matter where it moved in three-dimensional space. This demonstrates that the lunge that accompanies the strike is in this species aimed and not invariant in distance and direction as suggested for other mantids.

 

Correte, B.J. ; 1990 ; Prey capture in the praying mantis Tenoder aridifolia sinensis: coordination of the capture sequence and strik movements

Source : Journal of Experimental Biology ; 0022-0949 ; 148: 147 180

abstract: Coordination of the complete capture sequence of Tenodera aridifolia sinensis was studied in detail using several specially developed photographic techniques. The mantis was able to attack prey (Sarcophaga bullata [Neobellieria bullata]) throughout a large 3-dimensional capture zone by changing body orientation relative to its perch. This orientation centred prey on the median plane and brought it within an attack zone relative to the prothorax. Alignment with the median plane simplifies the attack since the prey can then be localized using only two dimensions. The attack comprised several stereotyped components which together formed a single movement sequence of all 6 legs. Although too rapid for visual feedback, a simple mechanism permits steering of these movements to capture prey at particular locations within the attack zone. These findings are contrasted with those from studies of mantis visual

 

Crosby, T.K. ; 1984 ; Observations on the winter survival of the prayin mantis, Orthodera ministralis (Mantodea: Mantidae), in Auckland

Source : New Zealand Entomologist ; ; 8: 90 96

D'Alessio, G. ; 1982 ; Arginine and memory consolidation in praying mantis

Source : Journal of Comparative Physiology. A Sensory Neural ; 0340-7594 ; 147: 231 235

abstract: and Behavorial Physiology

 

Daniels R J R ; 1989 ; Observations on the biology of the praying mantis Creobater urbana Fabr. (Orthoptera:

Source : Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society ; 0006-6982 ; 86 (3). :(1990). 329-332

abstract: Observations on the biology of a species of Indian mantis, namely Creobater urbana Fabr. have been dicussed in the text. The egg laying interval was predictable. The data shows a gradual decrease in the number of young that hatched out irrespective of the size of the ootheca. The species does not appear to be parthenogenetic. The life- history of the young has also been discussed. A parasite on the ootheca of mantises was identified. Coexistence of ants with developing praying mantis embryo inside the ootheca was also noticed. (DOCUMENT NON REFERENCE DANS ERHMANN 1998)

 ****************** The biology of one female of Creobater urbana [Creobroter urbanus] and its offspring was studied in the laboratory. Several insect species were accepted as prey. Oviposition behaviour is described; on average there was an interval of 9.1 days between ovipositions. An average of 45.3 progeny/ootheca was produced and these took 77 days to reach the

 

Davies, T. H. ; 1994 ; Two new insect records from Napier, Hawkes Bay.

Source : Weta. ; 0111-7696 ; 17: 1, 16-17.

abstract: Pheidole sp. and a mantid are recorded from Napier, New Zealand.

 

Davis, N.T. ; 1992 ; Vasopressin immunoreactiv neurons and neurohemal systems in cockroaches and mantids

Source : Journal of Economic Entomology ; 0022-0493 ; 320: 381 393

abstract: Vasopressin-like neuropeptides of insects are of special interest because of their possible function as hormones and neuromodulators. Therefore, this study was undertaken by using whole-mount immunofluorescent staining by two antisera that recognize different types of vasopressin-like immunoreactive groups of neurons in the cockroaches Periplaneta americana, Leucophaea maderae, Nauphoeta cinerea, Diploptera punctata, and Blaberus discoidalis and in the mantids Litaneuria minor and Tenodera aridifolia sinensis. Using an antiserum to Arg/vasopressin, only two cells, the paired ventral paramedian (PVP) neurons, were immunostained in the central nervous system (CNS) of the cockroaches. These cells are located in the subesophageal ganglion, project throughout the CNS, and appear to be neurosecretory. Their varicose collaterals extend into the dorsal (motor) neuropil of the segmental ganglia, and this neuropil may be the principal site of the release of their neurosecretion. The PVP neurons were also stained by an antiserum to Lys/vasopressin; in addition this antiserum stained several other groups of neurons, most of which appeared to be neurosecretory. Two pairs of Lys/vasopressin-immunoreactive cells are similar to the PVP neurons in that they are located in the subesophageal ganglion, extend through the ventral nerve cord, have collaterals in the dorsal neuropil of the segmental ganglia, and appear to be neurosecretory within the CNS. In addition, midventral and anteroventral clusters of Lys/vasopressin-immunoreactive neurosecretory neurons in the subesophageal ganglion project neurohemal release sites on the corpora allata. Other types of Lys/vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons include median and lateral neurosecretory cells of the protocerebrum and neurosecretory cells in the tritocerebrum, all of which project to the corpora cardiaca. In the abdominal ganglia there are posterolateral clusters of Lys/vasopressin neurosecretory neurons, and these cells extend to neurohemal release sites on the transverse and lateral cardiac nerves. In mantids the anti-Arg/vasopressin and anti-Lys/vasopressin antisera stained most of the same groups of neurons that these antisera recognized in cockroaches. The results of this study suggest that there are two or more vasopressin-like peptides in cockroaches and mantids and that these peptides may be released either as hormones in

 

Davis, W.J. ; 1988 ; Cerci mediate mating movements in the male praying mantis.

Source : Zool. Jahr. Allg. Physiol. Tiere. ; 0044-5185 ; 92: 47 55

abstract: Ablation of the abdominal cerci of males of Tenodera aridifolia sinensis was shown to prolong rhythmic s-bending movements of the abdomen associated with sexual behaviour and to block intromission. Decapitation of males elicited prolonged s-bending, as had already been shown. Transferring decapitated males from a flat substrate to a female or any long, slender object increased the frequency of s-bending, but ablation of the cerci prevented this increase. The cercal sensory pathways mediating s-bending were functional prior to sexual maturity. The influence of both afferent cercal and central nervous system sources on s-bending elicited by decapitation increased in immature males, peaked 1-2 weeks after sexual maturity, and declined thereafter, similarly to s-bending of intact males during mating behaviour. The results demonstrated 2 roles for the abdominal cerci in association with male sexual behaviour;

 

del Cerro AL. ; 1998 ; Synaptonemal complex analysis of the X1X2Y trivalent in Mantis religiosa L. males: inferences on the origin and maintenance of the sex-determining mechanism.

Source : Chromosome Research ; 0967-3849 ; 6(1):5-11

abstract: Characterization of sex chromosomes in males of Mantis religiosa L. (2n = 24 + X1X2Y) was carried out by C-banding, silver staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. They are meta- or submetacentric, their arms being designated as X1L, X1R, X2R, X2L, YL and YR. Meiotic behaviour of the sex trivalent was examined through the analysis of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), prometaphase I (metaphase I) and metaphase II nuclei. On the basis of the SC analysis, chromosomal length measurements at mitosis and prometaphase I and data from several orthopteran species, it is proposed that the breakpoints of the reciprocal translocation that originated this complex sex-determining mechanism were close to the centromeres of the X and the largest autosome, and that the asynapsed X1L and X2R regions observed in the sex trivalent at pachytene represent the original X chromosome. The X centromere being probably that of the X2 element because it lacks a partner in the SC pachytene trivalent. The relationship among

 

Demichele D W. ; 1977 ; Stochastic analysis for the description and synthesis of predator prey systems.

Source : Canad.Ent. ; 0008-347X ; 109 (9) : 1167-1174

abstract: A stochastic analysis approach for predator-prey systems modeling is developed. The states of the system are assumed to have a natural probabilistic variation. Elements of queueing theory are used to describe these variations and to obtain both the transient and steady-state results for the system. The predator is considered analogous to a service facility and the prey as customers to be served. The Holling disk equation and mantid-fly experiments are analyzed by this approach. The method provides a framework for a straightforward synthesis of the system components and is readily generalized for multiple predator systems. Hunger and other behavioral aspects can be easily incorporated

 

Desalle R. ; 1992 ; DNA sequences from a fossil termite in oligo-miocene amber and their phylogenetic

Source : Science (Washington DC) ; 0036-8075 ; 257 (5078):1933-1936.

abstract: DNA was extracted from the fossil termite (Mastotermes electrodominicus preserved in Oligo-Miocene amber (25 million to 30 million years old). Fragments of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and nuclear (18S rDNA) genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis of fossil and extant 18S rDNA confirmed morphological cladistic analyses of living dictyopterans (termites, cockroaches, and mantids). The fossil termite shares several sequence attributes with Mastotermes darwiniensis. Addition of this fossil to living-species phylogeny is required to substantiate Mastotermes monophyly and affects molecular phylogenetic hypotheses of termites in this, the

 

Doumandji, S ; 1993 ; Les mantes du Parc National de Chréa en Algérie (Dictyoptera: Mantodea).

Gillon, Y.19

Gurney, A.B 20

Source : Annales de la Société Entomologique de France ; 0037-9271 ; 29 (1: 105-106.

abstract: A list of the Mantidae that have been recorded from the Chrea National Park in Algeria is presented. Sphodromantis viridis and Mantis religiosa are included. AMELES-NANA AMELES-AFRICANA EMPUSA-PENNATA RIVETINA-FASCIATA GEOMANTIS-LARVOIDES PSEUDOYERSINIA-KABILIKIA SPHODROMANTIS-VIRIDIS MANTIS-RELIGIOSA IRIS-ORATORIA ZOOGEOGRAPHY.

 

Dresner E. ; 1970 ; A Dermestid Coleoptera infesting Mantid egg pods.

Source : Annals of the Entomological Society of America ; 0013-8746 ; 63 (5) : 1477-1478

Dusse K. ; 1997 ; Food limitation reduces body length in mantid nymphs, Tenodera sinensis Saussure (Mantodea: Mantidae): Implications for fitness.

Source : Proceedings of the Entomological Society of ; 0013-8797 ; Washington 99(3):. 490-493

abstract: Growth rate and body size have been linked to fitness in the mantid, Tenodera sinensis Saussure (Mantodea: Mantidae). We asked how early in the life cycle food level could affect these two parameters. Two laboratory cohorts were offered prey at either high or low density during first and second stadia. These nymphs exhibited significant differences in predation rate, growth rate, and body size, but not in gross growth efficiency. Well-fed nymphs achieved larger body size in a shorter time than poorly fed ones during both their first and second stadia. Because body size of adult females determines maximum fecundity, this response suggests that food level during the early life history of this species can directly affect fitness. Flexibility in body size and rate of development may play an important role in

 

Easton E R . ; 1991 ; Annotated list of insects of macau observed during 1989.

Source : Entomological News ; 0013-872X ; 102 (2):105-111

Edmunds, M. ; 1991 ; Cryptic behavior in the oriental leaf mantis sinomantis-denticulata beier dictyoptera

Source : Entomologist's Monthly Magazine ; 0013-8908 ; 127:45-48.

Edmunds, M. ; 1975 ; Courtship, mating, and possible sex pheromones in three species of Mantodea

Source : Entomologist's Monthly Magazine ; 0013-8908 ; 111(1328-30) : (1976) 53 57

Edmunds, M. ; 1976 ; The defensive behavior of Ghanaian praying mantid with a discussion of territoriality

Source : Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society ; ; 58 (1 ): 1 37

Ehrmann, Reinhard ; 1998 ; Mantodea : Bibliographie zun Thema Mantodea

Source : Verlag Goecke & Evers, Keltern ; I1431-8873 /isbn 3- ; 1: 1-254

abstract: 931374-10-6

 

Eisenberg, R.M. ; 1992 ; Adult dispersal of Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae)

Source : Environmental Entomology ; 0046-225X ; 21: 350 353

abstract: dult males and females of Tenodera aridifolia sinensis exhibited similar dispersal in a large, natural field population in Maryland. Distance and frequency of movement of bee-tagged individuals were the same for each sex, and neither sex demonstrated a significant directional bias. Therefore, contrary to the findings of an earlier study, females can move as far on the ground as males can fly during their adult lives under natural circumstances. Neither males nor females moved farther than 70 m from the point at which they were originally tagged, which may explain the disjunct

 

Eisenberg, R.M. ; 1993 ; Relative egg success an implications for distribution of three sympatric mantids

Source : Proceedings of the Entomological Society of ; 0013-8797 ; 95: 271 277

abstract: We compared hatching success and mortality of eggs among three sympatric mantid species (Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure, T. angustipennis Saussure, Mantis religiosa Linnaeus) in two field sites in northern Delaware. Oothecae were heavier in CHRY than AG (two old-field study sites) for all three species, indicating a difference in feeding opportunity for adults in the parental generation. However, hatching success did not differ between sites, so that adult feeding condition did not affect the probability of successful emergence of the next generation. None of the egg mortality for any species was caused by natural enemies in these populations. Hatching success was dramatically lower for M. religiosa than for the two Tenodera species, reflecting a difference in tolerance to abiotic environmental factors. **Hatching success and egg mortality were compared for 3 sympatric mantid species (Tenodera aridifolia sinensis [T. sinensis], T. angustipennis and Mantis religiosa) at 2 old field sites (CHRY and AG) in northern Delaware during 1985. Oothecae were heavier in CHRY than AG for all 3 species, indicating a difference in feeding opportunity for adults in the parental generation. However, hatching success did not differ between sites, so that adult feeding condition did not effect the probability of successful emergence of the next generation. None of the egg mortality for any species was caused by natural enemies in these populations. Hatching success was dramatically lower for M. religiosa than for

 

Eisenberg, R.M. ; 1990 ; Egg dispersion in two species of praying mantids (Mantodea: Mantidae).

Source : Proceedings of the Entomological Society of ; 0013-8797 ; 92 (4): 808-810.

abstract: Tenodera sinensis (Saussure) and Mantis religiosa (Linnaeus) are univoltine generalist predators which produce eggs at the end of the growing season. Oothecae of both species exhibit markedly contagious dispersion in old fields in northern Delaware. In view of the large number of eggs contained in each ootheca, the propensity for synchronous egg hatch for each species, and severe food limitation during emergence early in the spring, such clumping is suprising since its places newly-hatched nymphs at a greater risk of cannibalism and competition from their cohort than if they were more uniformly distributed in space. Possible explanations for such clumping are discussed.

 

Eisenberg, R.M. ; 1992 ; Comparative egg ecology of two sympatric mantids (Mantodea: Mantidae)

Source : Proceedings of the Entomological Society of ; 0013-8797 ; 94 (3): 366-370

abstract: We compared numbers and weights of oothecae, hatching success, numbers of eggs and sizes of emerging nymphs of two species of sympatric mantids (Tenodera sinensis Saussure and Mantis religiosa L.) from two different old field habitats (CHRY and AG). Hatching success and size of emerging nymphs were much greater for T. sinensis, whereas number of eggs/ootheca were about the same for both species. However, sizes of nymphs varied between oothecae of each species. Numbers and sizes of oothecae for both species were greater at CHRY than AG, probably indicating

 

Ene, J.C. ; 1964 ; The distribution and post embryonic development o Tarachodes afzelii (Stål), (Mantodea: Eremiaphilidae)

Source : Ann. Mag. Na Hist. (London.) ; 0374-5481 ; 7: 493 511

abstract: synonimies présentées non incorporées

 

Fagan, W.F ; 1996 ; Size-dependant cannibalism in the praying mantis: using biomass flux model size- structured population.

Source : American Naturalist ; 0003-0147 ; 147(2): 230 268

abstract: Here we investigate how cannibalism, a widespread phenomenon in nature, influences the population dynamics and the differential success of emergence-timing strategies in praying mantids. Relying on an extraordinarily complete data set describing the ecophysiology of a single mantid species, we construct a size-structured model based on "biomass flux" to study how size-dependent cannibalism influences this species' population ecology. Further, we demonstrate how this model accurately predicts mantid developmental patterns under both laboratory and field conditions. We conclude that for mantids, and perhaps generalist ambush predators overall, descriptions of biomass flux can be satisfactorily used to model growth without explicit reliance on encounter rate terms. In particular, this autecological approach to modeling size-structured interactions provides a method for revealing how sensitively

 

Fagan, W.F ; 1991 ; Direct and indirect effects o generalist predators on a terrestrial arthropod community

Source : American Midland Naturalist ; 0003-0031 ; 126: 380 384

abstract: The densities of an assemblage of cursorial spiders and a mantid, Mantis religiosa were elevated in replicated field enclosures to compare their impact on a terrestrial arthropod community. Mantids reduced overall biomass 88% relative to controls by directly eliminating grasshoppers and crickets, and to a lesser extent by reducing numbers of cursorial spiders. Spiders also eliminated grasshoppers, but indirectly enhanced cricket numbers, a compensatory effect which canceled their effect on total biomass. Numbers of cursorial spiders were lower in enclosures initially containing elevated spider densities than in controls, suggesting that increased predation among these spiders reduced predation

 

Fagan, W.F ; 1991 ; Late season food level, cannibalism,and oviposition in adult mantids (Orthoptera: Mantidae): sources o variability in a field experiment

Source : Proceedings of the Entomological Society of ; 0013-8797 ; 93: 956 961

abstract: Feeding experiments in the field with mantids typically have yielded results in which statistical variation could not be attributed to variability in performance of specific individuals. Adult female Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure, which were individually marked and confined to replicated enclosures in the field, were subjected to two feeding levels and starvation control. All groups lost weight during the two week experiment; however, this loss was from oviposition in well-fed mantids, from decline in body mass among those which starved. Amount of cannibalism was unrelated to feeding level; however, only cannibals managed to gain body mass in starved and low food level groups. More and slightly heavier oothecae were produced in the high food level group than in the other two; however, cannibals oviposited fewer oothecae than non-cannibals. Variability in performance of individuals within and between

 

Fagan, W.F ; 1997 ; Introducing a "boundary-flux" approach to quantifying insect diffusion rates.

Source : Ecology (Washington DC) ; 0012-9658 ; 78(2): 579-587

abstract: Dispersal behaviors of organisms have been the subject of extensive ecological investigation at both the theoretical and experimental levels. One common framework for field studies of dispersal behavior that can be easily melded with theoretical work is the calculation of "diffusion rates." Traditionally, this approach to studying dispersal has required (1) the tedious location of large numbers of individuals at a particular time or (2) actively tracking the movements of individuals. Here, I present a flux-based or "boundary-oriented" methodology that quantifies the passage of individuals into an absorbing boundary of known location at multiple points in time. This approach, which is the natural complement of existing methods, may make quantification of dispersal behavior more practical for time-strapped field researchers. Under the umbrella of the flux-based approach presented here, I use data from field experiments to determine the effect of initial density on dispersal rate for two sympatric species of praying mantids, species of generalist arthropod predators common in early successional fields. Unlike existing techniques, the methodology I outline here is specifically designed to handle dispersal data recorded from the two-dimensional, "plot-oriented" world of terrestrial ecology, facilitating the measurement of species-specific dispersal parameters that are necessary for meshing several important aspects of theoretical and experimental ecology.

 

Fagan, W.F ; 1994 ; Hatch density variation of generalist arthropod predator: population consequences and communit impact

Source : Ecology (Washington DC) ; 0012-9658 ; 75: 2022 2032

abstract: We examined density dependence in population attributes and community impact of a generalist predator by experimentally mimicking natural variation in initial cohort densities produced by synchronous egg hatch in Mantis religiosa (Mantodea: Mantidae). Mantid cohorts within the normal range of emergence from a single egg mass were established in a replicated, well-controlled open field experiment. On the scale of the progeny from a single female, density-dependent food limitation caused mortality and ontogenetic asynchrony to increase with increasing density. All cohorts converged to a common level of abundance and biomass because both development rate and population size declined with increasing initial density. Numbers and biomass of other arthropods generally declined with increasing initial density of mantids, although there were both positive and negative effects on different taxa. The abundance of hemipterans (almost exclusively herbivorous mirids) increased in the presence of mantids; this was an indirect effect as large in magnitude as any of the direct reductions in abundance of other taxa. Per capita interaction strengths of mantids on most taxa generally were weak except for the strong positive interaction with hemipterans. In spite of different mantid development rates among treatments, predator load (proportion of arthropod biomass present as predators) for all three treatments, attributable mainly to mantid biomass, converged to approximately five times control level by the end of the experiment. The differences in predator loads between control and treatment plots thus may represent different levels of predator saturation: one for control plots, where predator load was constant over time and in which generalists contributed relatively little to predator biomass, and a higher one for treatment plots, in which generalists comprised the bulk of predator biomass. Predator load may therefore be an indicator of the relative

 

Finot A. P. A. ; 1895 ; Faune de l'Algérie et de la Tunisie, Insectes Orthoptères

Source : Annales de la Société Entomologique de France ; 0037-9271 ; 64 ? : 90 114

abstract: espèces non traitées

 

Fisher, R. Jr ; 1994 ; Praying mantis catches and eats hummingbird.

Source : Birding ; ; 26: 6, 376

Flechtmann C A H. ; 1994 ; Aspects of the biology of Thesprotia macilenta Sauss. & Znht. and Tithrone major Piza

Source : Anais Da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil ; 0301-8059 ; 23 (3): 479-486

abstract: The biology of two Mantodea species, Thesprotia macilenta Sauss. & Znht. and Tithrone major Piza, was studied in the laboratory. T. macilenta showed sexual reproduction with high egg viability (74%) and nymphal mortality (ca. 93%). Mean number of instars was six, with a nymphal period of 87 days, when ca. 591 mg prey (live weight) was consumed. T. major was parthenogenetic, and it had low egg viability (ca. 24%) and high nymphal mortality (ca. 91%). Mean number of instars was nine, with a nymphal period of 146 day, when 2608 mg prey (live weight) was

 

Foth E. ; 1983 ; Influence of loading parallel to the body axis on the walking coordination of an insect 2. contralateral changes.

Source : Biological Cybernetics ; ; 48 (3) : 149-158

abstract: It is often reported in the early literature that insects walk with the legs protacting in diagonal pairs rather than the triplet of 3 legs associated with the tripod step pattern. The diagonal pattern implies that legs of the same segment have a phase relationship significantly different from 0.5. Such a pattern of leg recovery has been demonstrated quantitatively for the stick insect (Graham, 1972). Such patterns occur in several insects and systematic asymmetry can even be detected in the earliest quantitative study on cockroaches (Hughes, 1957) when the animals are walking slowly. More recently Spirito and Mushrush (1979) have reported systematic deviations from a phase of 0.5 similar to those observed in stick insects. Asymmetry has also been quantitatively demonstrated in katydids (Graham, 1978) and was recently observed in mantid walking (Thomson, personal communication). This phenomenon seems to be a general characteristic of slow walking coordination in insects. In stick insects asymmetry only becomes obvious in gait II at slow speeds although there can be systematic differences in ipsilateral coordination on right and left sides even at

 

Frye, F.L. ; 1992 ; Captive invertebrates: a guide to their biology and husbandry.

Source : Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida, USA ; 0-89464-555-2 ; 135 pp

abstract: The rearing of arachnids (such as spiders and scorpions), centipedes and millipedes, insects (including cockroaches, mantids and beetles), crustaceans (crabs and crayfish), pulmonate slugs and snails, and turbellarians (flatworms) is described in this book. Chapters are also given on caging for terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic invertebrates and on the culture of prey species (including earthworms, crickets, mealworms, silkworms, wax moth larvae, fruit flies and houseflies). An appendix giving commercial sources for some living invertebrates (in the USA), and a glossary, bibliography, index of scientific names and general subject index are included. In addition, species of arachnids currently available in the pet trade are cross-referenced by scientific names. Black-and-white and colour photographs are provided of many of the species mentioned in the text. This book should prove useful to people who wish to rear

 

Fye, R.E. ; 1979 ; A simplified method of feeding large numbers of individual mantids

Source : Journal of Economic Entomology ; 0022-0493 ; 72: 83 84

abstract: Studies on the impact of mantids as biological control agents have been severely hampered by lack of a rearing method capable of producing large numbers of parasite-free egg-masses. A simplified method that was developed in the USA for feeding large numbers of individual mantids is described. Mantids were reared in containers mounted on a floor over a closed chamber. Prey released into the chamber moved into the rearing compartments by crawling up a dowel inserted through an oversize hole in the floor of each rearing cell. Using this technique, Stagmomantis limbata (Hahn) was successfully reared and mated; the prey was Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) for young mantids and mobile

 

Gade G ; 1991 ; The adipokinetic neuropeptide of mantodea sequence elucidation and evolutionary

Source : Biological Chemistry Hoppe-Seyler ; 0177-3593 ; 372 (3) : 193-202

abstract: A neuropeptide with adipokinetic activity in Locusta migratoria and the mantid Empusa pennata, and hypertrehalosaemic activity in Periplaneta americana, was isolated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography from corpora cardiaca of the mantids E. pennata and Sphodromantis sp. After brief enzymatic digestion by 5-oxoprolylpeptidase the primary structure of the peptide of each species was determined by pulsed-liquid phase sequencing employing Edman degradation. The C-terminus of both peptides was blocked, as indicated by the lack of digestion with carboxypeptidase A. The peptides of both species were identical: a blocked, uncharged octapeptide with the sequence L-mantid adipokinetic hormone (Emp-AKH). The synthetic peptide was chromatographically indistinguishable from the natural compound and increased blood lipids in locusts and blood carbohydrates in cockroaches when administered in low doses. The structural features clearly define the peptide as a novel member of the large AKH/RPCH-family of peptides. Seven amino-acid residues are at identical positions in Emp-AKH when compared with the adipokinetic hormone of a dragonfly (Lia-AKH) and the hypertrehalosaemic

 

Gaede G . ; 1995 ; Functional and evolutionary aspects of peptides of the AKH/RPCH family: The Odonata and Dictyoptera story.

Source : Konopinska, D. (Ed.).Insects: Chemical, physiological ; ISBN 83-229-1303-6 ; 28-34.

abstract: and environmental aspects; 1st International Conference, Ladek-Zdroj, Poland, September 26-29, 1994. 350p. 28- 34. Technical University of Wroclaw: Wroclaw, Poland

 

Ge, D. C. ; 1986 ; Rearing and releasing of mantids for control of destructive insects on cotton.

Source : Natural Enemies of Insects ; ; 8: 4, 200-204

abstract: The mantids Hierodula patellifera, Mantis religiosa and Paratenodera [Tenodera] form 85, 10 and 5%, respectively, of the mantid population in Jiangpu County, Jiangsu, China. By rearing adults on various artificial diets, 697 egg masses were obtained in 1979 and 1360 in 1980. Different diets had significant effects on the growth and development of the mantids, resulting in lower body lengths and body weights and a longer nymphal period than the control. The survival and fecundity of individuals reared on the diets were also lower than the controls. The release of 1000 2nd-instar nymphs/mu [1 mu = 0.067 ha] and 30 egg masses/mu in cotton fields at 10-15 sites in Jiangsi resulted in a 3.7% reduction of damaged cotton squares and bolls, and a 66.7% reduction in insecticide costs. The

 

Germ M. ; 1997 ; Dopamine, N-acetyldopamine and serotonin concentrations in the visual system of praying mantis during postembryonic development.

Source : Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology ; 0010-406X ; 116(4): 379-386

abstract: High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used to quantify the two biogenic amines dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) as well as a metabolite of DA, N-acetyldopamine (NADA), in the compound eyes and optic lobes of praying mantis (Polyspilota sp. and Tenodera sinensis) during postembryonic development. After hatching, DA and 5-HT concentrations (pmol/mg ww) were relatively high (DA, 5.43 +- 1.13; 5-HT, 5.65 +- 1.0 for Polyspilota), but the NADA concentration was more than 25 times higher than those of DA and 5-HT (143.7 +- 16.71 for Polyspilota). Subsequently, the concentrations decreased constantly into the middle larval instar and then rose to reach their highest peak in the last larval instar (DA) or a very high concentration in the seventh instar (5-HT and NADA). In adults, DA, 5-HT and NADA concentrations decreased again. The concentration profile for NADA was similar to that of 5-HT. The values per structure (compound eye and optic lobe complex) and per ommatidial column channel were also calculated. It is significant that changes in the amine levels during

 

Giglio-Tos ; 1927 ; Das tierreich vol 60 mantodea

Source : Walter de Gruyter & Co. (Berlin) ; ; 707 pages

abstract: dernière révison complète en date c'est l'ouvrage de référence.

 

Giglio-Tos ; 1927 ; Das tierreich vol 60 mantodea

Source : Walter de Gruyter & Co. (Berlin) ; ; 707 pages

abstract: dernière révison complète en date c'est l'ouvrage de référence.

 

Gomez, R. ; 1995 ; Catalogo de los Orthopteroidea, clasificados a nivel especifico, depositados en el departament de ciencia y tecnologia agroforestal de la E.T.S.I.A. de Albacete (Espana)

Source : Ecologia (Madrid) ; 0214-0896 ; 9, 479-487

abstract: A total of 170 species belonging to the orders Orthoptera, Phasmoptera, Dermaptera, Mantodea and Blattoptera is listed from the collection in the University of Castilla - La Mancha, Spain.

 

Gomez, R. ; 1991 ; Orthopteroidea del sur de la provincia de Albacete (Espana). Ensifera. Mantodea. Phasmoptera. Blattoptera. Dermaptera

Source : Anales de Biologia ; ; 17: 7-21

abstract: The Orthopteroidea (except Caeliferae) from the south of the province of Albacete, Spain, were studied using specimens collected from 50 different localities during 1988-90. Fifty- two species are described and new data on the biology of the species and the preferred types of vegetation are given.

 

Grandcolas Philippe. ; 1998 ; Successful use of a deimatic display by the praying mantid Polyspilota aeruginosa against the yellow-vented bulbul

Source : Annales de la Société Entomologique de France ; 0037-9271 ; 34 (3) : 335-336

Grandcolas Philippe. ; 1996 ; The phylogeny of cockroach families: A cladistic appraisal of morpho-anatomical data.

Source : Canadian Journal of Zoology ; 0008-4301 ; 74(3): 508-527

abstract: Seventy-two morpho-anatomical characters were examined in 221 genera belonging to the families Blattidae, Polyphagidae, Blattellidae, and Blaberidae. They were cladistically analyzed and polarized using two mantids and two termites. As no autapomorphies of the family Blattellidae were found, the constituent subfamilies were used as terminal taxa together with other families. Three trees were found (CI = 0.81 and RI = 0.88, without autapomorphies) that differed only by the position of Nyctiborinae relative to Blattellinae and Ectobiinae. The strict consensus tree was (Blattidae (Polyphagidae (Anaplectinae ((Pseudophyllodromiidae, Blaberidae) (Nyctiborinae, Blattellinae, Ectobiinae))))). The main discrepancies with McKittrick's tree were the monophyly of Polyphagidae (instead of paraphyly) and that the Blaberidae is the sister-group of Pseudophyllodromiinae (instead of the sister-group of Blattellinae, Ectobiinae, and Nyctiborinae). These results made it necessary to elevate the Anaplectinae and Pseudophyllodromiinae to familial status, and to give a new sense to the family Blattellidae, which includes only the subfamilies Blattellinae, Ectobiinae, and Nyctiborinae. This phylogeny was used to test current evolutionary hypotheses concerning sociality and reproductive behaviour; many traits were assumed to be ancestral to all cockroaches (protozoan symbionts and familial life habits) or preadaptive (progressing from advanced oviparity in

 

Gray, P.T.A. ; 1983 ; The mechanics of the predatory strik of the praying mantid Hierodula membranacea

Source : Journal of Experimental Biology ; 0022-0949 ; 107: 245 275

abstract: The mechanics of the predatory strike of H. membranacea (Burm.) were studied using high speed cine, electrophysiological and anatomical techniques. Calculations of the muscle output required to produce the strike suggest that muscle performance generally lies within the range observed elsewhere and that no specializations for prior energy storage, as are found in some other rapid insect movements, are necessary. This view is supported by simultaneous EMG electromyography and cine studies showing no significant delay between the onset of EMG activity and the onset of stress development required by the direct action model. The apodemes of a number of forelimb muscles have complex 2-point suspensions; these have a significant role in determining the moment-arm/joint-angle relationships of the muscles. The parallel-fibered part of the tibial flexor muscle has a high strain rate, 17.5 s-1, at 27.degree.-30.degree. C. This is the fastest recorded strain rate for an insect muscle; it approaches the fastest strain

 

Gray, P.T.A. ; 1985 ; The musculature of the prothoracic legs and its innervation in Hierodula membranacea

Source : Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of ; ; 309 (1140) : 479-504

abstract: London B Biological Sciences The musculature of the fore limbs and the innervation pattern of the muscles in the praying mantid Hierodula membranacea (Burm.) are described. There are three antagonistic pairs of muscles (promotors-remotors, abductors- adductors, anterior rotator-posterior rotators) operating the prothoracic-coxal joint around three different axes. At the coxo-trochanteral, femoro-tibial and tibio-tarsal joints there are flexor and extensor muscles, but at the tarsal-pretarsal joint only flexors are present. The trochanteral extensor is a complex muscle, with both parallel-fibred and pennate parts. The trochanteral-femoral joint is operated by a single muscle, the femoral reductor. There are six pairs of prothoracic nerves, the first of which innervates the musculature of the neck and pro-mesothoracic joints. The other five nerves are all concerned with the innervation of the muscles and sense organs of the prothoracic legs. Some of the motor neuron somata in the prothoracic ganglion have been identified by using the cobalt chloride backstaining

 

Grimaldi D . ; 1997 ; A fossil mantis (Insecta: Mantodea) in Cretaceous amber of New Jersey, with comments on the early history of the Dictyoptera.

Source : American Museum Novitates ; 0003-0082 ; 0(3204):1-11

abstract: The nymph of a new genus and species of mantis, Jersimantis luzzi, is described, in amber from the mid-Cretaceous (Turonian) of central New Jersey. It is the oldest mantis from North America and only the second report for Mesozoic mantises. Although it cannot be definitively placed into a modern family, it is plesiomorphic compared to most modern mantises in the head and pronotal shape, and structure of the raptorial forelegs, similar to what is found in the most primitive extent family of mantises, the Chaeteessidae. The age and apparent phylogenetic position of Jersimantis are consistent with the view of a late Mesozoic radiation of the Dictyoptera, not a Paleozoic radiation as has sometimes been suggested. It is hypothesized that the Isoptera and Mantodea are closely related to the "ovipositorless" roaches that first appear in the early Cretaceous/late Jurassic (into the present) and that the Mesozoic

 

Grinfel D E K. ; 1967 ; Edibility of the Hymenoptera and other Insects by Mantodea.

Source : VESTN LENINGRAD UNIV SER BIOL ; ; 22 (2) : 33-38

Guerrero, G.A. ; ; 1976 ; Contribution to the study of the female genital system and stages of development of Coptopteryx viridis Insecta Mantodea.

Source : Physis Seccion C Los Continentes y Los Organismos ; ; 35 (90) : 125-137

Guerrero, G.A. ; ; 1990 ; Ultrastructural features of coptopteryx-viridis dictyoptera mantidae eggshell layers and

Source : Revista Brasileira de Biologia ; 0034-7108 ; 50 (2): 475-486.

abstract: The ultrastructure and regional complexity of the Coptopteryx viridis eggshell layers are described. To start with, there are three layers: the exochorion is the thickest layer (4.8 to 26.4 .mu.m) and comprises four morphologically distinct regions. The endochorion, whose mean thickness is 2 .mu.m, presents three sublayers: a 0.05 .mu.m homogeneous innermost one and a 1 .mu.m outermost one, also homogeneous, separated by 0.95 .mu.m-high "pillars" 0.14 .mu.m appart from one another. The vitelline membrane, some 0.60 .mu.m thick, exhibits an irregular granular apearance without any discernible pattern. On the basis of our findings, a possible respiratory mechanism is proposed.

 

Guerrero, G.A. ; ; 1990 ; Ovaric development and diet in Coptopteryx-viridis dyctioptera-mantidae.

Source : Comunicaciones Biologicas ; 0326-1956 ; 8 (3) : 295-308.

abstract: The diet plays an important role in eggs production in female insects. The purpose of this study is to present some data that relate the influence of diet on ovary's development and egg's maturation. Results show that: 1) diet doesn't have influence over the growth rate. 2) apparently diet acts on nymphal development since most of the material used

 

Gupta M L. ; 1966 ; Chromosome number and sex chromosome mechanism in some more species of the

Source : Experientia. ; 0014-4754 ; 22(7):457-8

Gupta M L. ; 1975 ; A list of chromosome numbers and sex chromosome mechanisms in mantids.

Source : Indian Journal of Zoology ; ; 3 (1-2) : 27-34

Gwynne, D. T.(editor) ; 1983 ; Orthopteran mating systems: sexual competition in a diverse group of insects.

Source : Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, USA ; * ; 376 pp

abstract: This book is based on a symposium of the same title that was held at the annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America in Atlanta, Georgia, in November 1980. The contributions represent a comprehensive study of the diverse mating ecology of the Orthoptera (s. s., including the Blattodea, Mantodea and Phasmatodea), in the light of current sociobiological theory. There is a total of 16 papers, which are presented in sections on communication, competition for mates, choice of mates and mating systems in selected groups. The book is intended for ethologists and behavioural ecologists, as well as physiologists, behavioural geneticists and entomologists interested in insect reproductive biology. There are taxonomic, subject and author indexes.

 

Hahn BS. ; 1999 ; Purification and characterization of a serine protease with fibrinolytic activity from Tenodera sinensis (praying mantis).

Source : Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. ; 0006-3002 ; 1430(2):376-386

abstract: Mantis egg fibrolase (MEF) was purified from the egg cases of Tenodera sinensis using ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-60 and affinity chromatography on DEAE Affi-Gel blue gel. The protease was assessed homogeneous by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and has a molecular mass of 31500 Da. An isoelectric point of 6.1 was determined by isoelectric focusing. Amino acid sequencing of the N-terminal region established a primary structure composed of Ala-Asp-Val-Val-Gln-Gly-Asp-Ala-Pro-Ser. MEF readily digested the Aalpha- and Bbeta-chains of fibrinogen and more slowly the gamma-chain. The nonspecific action of the enzyme results in extensive hydrolysis of fibrinogen and fibrin releasing a variety of fibrinopeptide. The enzyme is inactivated by Cu2+ and Zn2+ and inhibited by PMSF and chymostatin, yet elastinal, aprotinin, TLCK, TPCK, EDTA, EGTA, cysteine, beta-mercaptoethanol, iodoacetate, E64, benzamidine and soybean trypsin inhibitor do not affect activity. Antiplasmin was not sensitive to MEF but antithrombin III inhibited the enzymatic activity of MEF. Among chromogenic protease substrates, the most sensitive to MEF hydrolysis was benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-p-nitroanilide with maximal activity at pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C. MEF preferentially cleaved the oxidized B-chain of insulin between Leu15 and Tyr16. D-Dimer concentrations increased on incubation of cross-linked fibrin with MEF, indicating the

 

Harz, K. ; 1976 ; Die Orthopteren Europas III

Source : Dr. W. Junk b.v, The Hague, The, Netherlands ; ISBN 90-6193-122-3 ; 434 pp

abstract: The orders dealth with in this third volume of a series on the Orthoptera of Europe are the Phasmoptera (widely referred to in the literature as the Phasmida), the Dermaptera, the Isoptera, and the Mantodea and Blattoptera (both of which are widely classified elsewhere as suborders of Dictyoptera, the name Blattaria being used for the second). Keys are presented (in both German and English) to the orders, families, genera and species and the distinguishing characters are given in the text. All the important characters are shown in line drawings. Notes 1192 fig., 250 X 170 mm, (Series Entomologica Volume 12).

 

He XiuSong. ; 1998 ; Characteristic analysis and taxonomic system of Isoptera.

Source : Entomotaxonomia ; 1000-7482 ; 20: 1, 14-20

abstract: The characters used in taxonomy of the Isoptera are discussed. The relationships between the Isoptera, Blattaria and Mantodea are considered.

 

Hebard, M ; 1920 ; Studies in Malayan, Papuan, and Australian Mantidae.

Source : Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. ; ; 1920: 14-82.

Heijmans H J A M. ; 1984 ; Holling s hungry mantid model for the invertebrate functional response considered as a Markov process. III. Stable satiation distribution.

Source : Journal of Mathematical Biology ; 0303-6812 ; 21 (2) : 115-144.

abstract: An analytical model describing predatory behavior in Hierodula crassa was studied. It is assumed that the parameter describing the predator's behavior is its satiation. Using semigroup methods and compactness arguments it is proved that a stable satiation distribution is reached if t .fwdarw..infin.. Using a Trotter-Kato theorem the transition to the much simpler problem that is obtained if the prey biomass tends to was justified.

 

Hernandez, A. ; 1998 ; Inventario y dinamica poblacional de los ortopteroides (Orthoptera, Blattoptera, Mantodea y Phasmoptera) del parque natural del "Carrascal de la Font Roja" (Alicante,

Source : Zoologica Baetica ; ; 9: 185-204

abstract: A catalogue of orthopteroid insects from a nature reserve in Alicante, Spain, is presented. The insects were sampled monthly between September 1995 and October 1996 at 10 sites by sweeping and the use of pitfall traps. Geographical distribution and population dynamics are discussed. The cockroach Loboptera decipiens was among the

 

Hiremath, I. G. ; 1989 ; Survey of sorghum earhead bug and its natural enemies in Karnataka.

Source : Journal of Biological Control ; 0970-5732 ; 3: 1, 13-16.

abstract: A survey of Calocoris angustatus and its natural enemies conducted between 1977 and 1980 in 8 sorghum growing districts in Karnataka revealed the presence of only one species with colour variations in all the districts. The mirid population was higher in the kharif season in Mysore, Bijapur, Chitradurga, Bellary, Dharwad and Belgaum districts compared to other districts. During summer, the maximum incidence of the mirids was recorded at Mysore (16.55), whereas during the rabi season it was highest in Bijapur (24). The natural enemies found in the survey were the formicids Camponotus compressus, and C. paria, the reduviid Rhinocoris fuscipes, the lygaeid Geocoris tricolor, the mantid Hierodula sp., erythraeids, 16 species of spiders and the entomogenous fungus Cephalosporium sp. The

 

Holling, C.S. ; 1976 ; Predator size and prey size presumed relationship in the mantid Hierodula coarctata.

Source : Canadian Journal of Zoology ; 0008-4301 ; 54 (10) : 1760-1764

Houssin Mathieu ; 1994 ; Elevage de Mantis religiosa en condition artificielles (Orthoptera, Mantidae)

Source : Insectes ; 0245-0151 ; 1994 (1) : 92

abstract: the author explain how he feed a female of Mantis religiosa with artifical food (water with sugar and dried milk)

 

Howard J. ; 1984 ; The dynamics of photo transduction in insects a comparative study.

Source : Journal of Comparative Physiology. A Sensory Neural ; 0340-7594 ; 154 (5) : 707-718.

abstract: and Behavorial Physiology The impulse-response was used to measure the dynamics of the photoresponse of 8 spp. of insects Locusta migratoria, Tympanophora pellucida, Tenodera australasiae, Periplaneta americana, Hemianax papuensis, Eristalis tenax, Musca domestica and Papilio aegeus from 6 orders in both light- and dark-adapted states. The impulse-responses of all cells were well fitted by the 2-parameter log-normal curve. In the dark-adapted state, the time-to-peak of the response varies from 38 ms in the drone-fly to 55 ms in the locust. Though interspecies variation is small, the house-fly Musca (41 ms) is significantly faster than the locust. In the light-adapted state, there are highly significant variations in the time-to-peak between species. The order is as follows: housefly (12.0 ms), drone-fly (16.5 ms), dragonfly (17.5 ms), mantid (18.1 ms), locust (21.9 ms) and cricket (22.1 ms). This variation in speed correlates with flight behavior. There are significant, though small, differences in the shape of the dark-adapted impulse-response, with that of the cockroach more symmetrical and the dragonfly more skew than the others. The impulse-response of the fly in the light- adapted state is more symmetrical than that of the other species and results in an even higher frequency response. Despite these differences in shape, all species have a similar transduction mechanism. Interspecies differences in time-scale can, at 1st approximation, be accounted for by the change of a single time-constant. The insects' impulse- responses were compared to those of vertebrates by using the cascade models of Fuortes and Hodgkin (1964) and Baylor et al. (1974). A large number of stages were required (10-50) and a > 50% variation in the number of stages was needed in order to fit response from different cells within a single species. The basic assumption of Fuortes and Hodgkin (1964) that the time-course is causally linked to the gain does not hold in the insect. No 1st-order system of chemical cascades can sensibly predict either the time-course of the photoresponse in insects, or the effects of light adaptation and hence that the insect transduction mechanism is fundamentally different to that of vertebrates. A model using second 1st order poles, 2 underdamped 2nd order poles and a pure time delay provides as good a fit to

 

Hoy.; R.R ; 1989 ; Startle, categorical response, and attention in acoustic behavior of insects.

Source : Annual Review of Neuroscience. ; 0147-006X ; 12: 355-375.

abstract: In this review of acoustic behaviour in insects, the author concentrates on the following: startle behaviour (including acoustic escape behaviour in moths, chrysopids and crickets and the acoustic startle response in Mantis religiosa), the possibility of categorical perception (social communication and the neural basis of song 'recognition' in crickets, and other possible examples of categorical response), and selective attention.

 

Hsieh YouLo. ; 1998 ; Variation of single fiber strength.

Source : Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, San Diego, ; ; 1536-1538

abstract: California, USA, 5-9 January 1998. Volume 2. National Cotton Council, Memphis, USA: The single fibre breaking strength of developing cotton cv. Texas Marker 1 and Pima S7 fibres and the strength- structure relationship were examined. The single fibre tensile measurements were performed using the Mantis single

 

Hua L. ; 1984 ; A new species of the genus Kishinouyeum Mantodea Mantidae Vatinae.

Source : Entomotaxonomia ; 1000-7482 ; 6 (1) : 29-30

abstract: K. jianfenglingensis sp. nov. is described. The new species is compared to the allied species K. sinensis Ouchi, 1938.

 

Huang FuSheng ; 1998 ; Characteristic analysis and taxonomic system of Isoptera.

Source : Entomotaxonomia ; 1000-7482 ; 20: 1, 14-20

abstract: The characters used in taxonomy of the Isoptera are discussed. The relationships between the Isoptera, Blattaria and Mantodea are considered.

 

Hurd, L.E. ; 1990 ; Arthropod community responses to manipulation of a bitrophic predator guild

Source : Ecology (Washington DC) ; 0012-9658 ; 71: 2107 2114

abstract: We used replicated field enclosures to manipulate population densities of two species of bitrophic predators in a terrestrial old-field community: a mantid (Tenodera sinensis), and a wolf spider (Lycosa rabida). The treatments consisted of adding mantids alone (8 individuals/enclosure), lycosids alone (10 individuals/enclosure), and lycosids and mantids together (8 + 10 individuals). A control consisted of enclosures to which no predators were added. The impact of these predators on numbers and biomass of other arthropods in the community was examined on several levels: overall community, different size (body length) categories, and major taxa. We asked whether the impact of these predators in combination could be predicted from their separate effects. Mantids depressed total numbers (10- 15%) and biomass (50%), in the arthropod community over the course of 10 d. This effect was confined to the largest size categories in the community. Lycosids had no measurable effect at this level of resolution. Mantids depressed abundance of acridids in both mantid and mantid/lycosid enclosures, but again lycosids had no impact. Lycosids alone enhanced abundance of gryllids, but not in the presence of mantids. Both mantids and lycosids depressed numbers of small spiders (also members of this guild), but this effect was not additive. Interactions among members of bitrophic generalist predator guilds may contribute to the commonness of nonadditive and higher order effects in manipulative experiments. Depending upon the level of resolution, it may be impractical to predict the impact of the whole guild from summing the individual effects of single predator species on terrestrial arthropod communities. *********

 

 Field enclosures were used to manipulate the population densities of 2 species of bitrophic predators (Tenodera sinensis [T. aridifolia sinensis] and Lycosa rabida) in a terrestrial old-field community in Maryland. The treatments consisted of adding mantids alone (8 individuals/enclosure), lycosids alone (10 individuals/enclosure) and lycosids and mantids together (8 plus 10 individuals/enclosure). The impact of these predators on numbers and biomass of other arthropods in the community was examined with reference to the overall community, different size categories, and major taxa. T. a. sinensis depressed total numbers (by 10-15%) and biomass (by 50%) in the arthropod community over the course of 10 days. This effect was confined to the largest size categories in the community. L. rabida had no measurable effect at this level of resolution. T. a. sinensis depressed the abundance of acridids both alone and with lycosids, but lycosids had no impact. L. rabida alone enhanced the abundance of gryllids, but not in the presence of T. a. sinensis. Both mantids and lycosids depressed the number of small spiders, but this effect was not additive. Interactions among members of bitrophic generalist predator guilds may contribute to the commonness of nonadditive and higher order effects in manipulative experiments. Depending upon the level of resolution, it may be impractical to

 

Hurd, L.E. ; 1989 ; The importance of late season flowers to the fitnes of an insect predator, Tenodera sinensis Saussure (Orthoptera:Mantidae), in an old field community

Source : The Entomologist ; 0013-8878 ; 108: 4, 223-228

abstract: In late summer in the eastern USA, adult females of Tenodera sinensis [T. aridifolia sinensis] inhabit abandoned agricultural fields undergoing secondary succession (old fields). During this time, the resident arthropod biomass declines, yet the energetic demand for egg production by female mantids is high. A comparison of mantids found on late-season flowers (Solidago spp.), on non-flowering plants in the same area, and a laboratory cohort fed ad libitum revealed that: mantids on the flowers gained weight at the same rate (double the initial weight) as those fed in the laboratory for the 2 weeks prior to oviposition; by the 2nd week of adulthood, mantids not on flowers were significantly lighter than the other two groups; and females from flowers and those in the laboratory cohort deposited larger oothecae than individuals in the field not on flowers. The results support the hypothesis that late-season flowers can

 

Hurd, L.E. ; 1991 ; Growth efficiency in juvenile mantids: absence of selection for optimization in a food limited environment (Orthoptera,Mantidae)

Source : Proceedings of the Entomological Society of ; 0013-8797 ; 93: 748 750

abstract: First instar mantids, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Saussure), were offered prey at six different densities in a replicated laboratory experiment. Although predation rate consistently increased with increasing prey density, growth efficiency reached a peak (58%) at intermediate prey density, and declined to 40% at the highest prey density. This decline, which represents a decrease in assimilation efficiency at the most rapid feeding rates, depicts wastage of food and reflects the lack of selection for optimization in food limited environments.

 

Hurd, L.E. ; 1984 ; Experimental density manipulation of the predator Tenodera sinensis (Orthoptera: Mantidae) in a old field community I Mortality, development and dispersal o juvenile

Source : Journal of Animal Ecology ; 0021-8790 ; 53 (1) : 269 281

abstract: Field and laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of density on early life-history characteristics of the mantid, T. sinensis. For 3 replicated field treatments of 3-fold differences in initial mantid density, relative mortality was not density-dependent. Mortality was > 90% for all treatments. Most mortality occurred among 1st-instar nymphs. Laboratory experiments indicated that nymphs could survive crowded conditions if provided with sufficient food. Cannibalism was negligible among well-fed nymphs at all densities. Starved nymphs exhibited substantial cannibalism, but this was not related to density. Rate of development, measured as changes in proportion of nymphs among instars over time, was negatively related to density in the field. Laboratory tests indicated that this was probably due to food limitation. Relative dispersal, measured by monitoring nymphs caught in Tangletrap barriers surrounding experimental field plots, increased with increasing density. This contributed to overall convergence in density to

 

Hurd, L.E. ; 1984 ; Experimental density manipulation of the predator Tenodera sinensis (Orthoptera: Mantidae) in a old field community II The influence of mantids on arthropo community

Source : Journal of Animal Ecology ; 0021-8790 ; 53(3): 955 967

abstract: A generalist arthropod predator, T. sinensis Saussure, was added to an old-field community as an experimental perturbation of arthropod community structure. At high mantid densities carnivore load, the ratio of carnivore to herbivore biomass was enhanced significantly relative to control levels. This effect varied in degree but remained throughout the experiment. Biomass of herbivores was depressed by mantids but the effect was inconsistent with depression in numerical abundance. The same was true for carnivores other than mantids. The response to mantid addition among arthropods in different size categories was highly variable and there were compensatory changes in abundance and biomass which sometimes damped net trophic effects. An examination of major taxa revealed a variety of positive and negative changes in abundance as a result of treatment, some of which may represent higher order interactions. ***** As an experimental perturbation of arthropod community structure, the generalist predator Tenodera sinensis [T. aridifolia sinensis] was added to an old-field community in the USA with no previous mantid population because of a history of annual mowing. At high mantid densities, carnivore load (the ratio of carnivore to herbivore biomass) was enhanced significantly relative to control levels. This effect varied in degree but remained throughout the experiment. The biomass of herbivores was depressed by the mantid, but the effect was inconsistent with depression in numerical abundace. The same was true for carnivores other than mantids. The response to mantid addition among arthropods in different size categories was highly variable, and there were compensatory changes in abundance and biomass that sometimes damped net trophic effects. An examination of major taxa revealed a variety of positive and negative changes in abundance as a result of treatment, some of which may represent higher order interactions. Homoptera (mainly cicadellids) were mainly reduced in numbers. No significant effects were found on Diptera, Coleoptera or

 

Hurd, L.E. ; 1989 ; A mid summer comparison of size and growth rates among nymphs of three sympatric mantids (Mantodea:Mantidae) in two old field habitats

Source : Proceedings of the Entomological Society of ; 0013-8797 ; 91: 51 54

abstract: The nymphs of 3 mantid species in 2 field habitats in Delaware were compared in 2 censuses during mid-summer 1986. Nymphs of Tenodera sinensis [T. aridifolia sinensis] exhibited no difference between sites, either in size or rate of maturation. Nymphs of both T. angustipennis and Mantis religiosa were significantly larger at one site than the other in August, although no such difference had been evident in July. More individuals of these 2 species had matured in the 1st than in the 2nd site, by the August census. It is suggested that T. angustipennis and M. religiosa were more food-limited at the 1st site than at the 2nd site during the time just prior to maturation. These results are

 

Hurd, L.E. ; 1997 ; Relieving food limitation reduces survivorship of a generalist predator.

Source : Ecology (Washington DC) ; 0012-9658 ; 78(4):1266-1270

abstract: We tested the hypothesis that food supplementation for the generalist arthropod predator Tenodera sinensis would alleviate starvation and reduce intraguild predation. Two field experiments showed that mantids had higher growth rates and lower dispersal in the presence of supplemental prey. However, estimated mortality was greater in food- addition plots, so that numbers of mantid nymphs remaining at the end of the experiments were not significantly different from those in control plots. When groups of mantids were raised in the laboratory, mortality declined with increased food, owing to decreased starvation. Cannibalism in these cohorts did not differ between food levels. Therefore, greater mortality at higher food levels probably was not caused by intraspecific interactions. Emigration of cursorial spiders large enough to prey on mantids decreased in the food-addition plots and may have increased

 

Hurd, L.E. ; 1990 ; Experimentally synchronize phenology and interspecific competition in mantids

Source : American Midland Naturalist ; 0003-0031 ; 124: 390 394

abstract: Two sympatric mantids, Tenodera sinensis (Saussure) and Mantis religiosa (Linnaeus), which normally exhibit different egg hatch phenologies, were experimentally synchronized in replicated field enclosures to test the hypothesis that interspecific competition occurs when body sizes are most nearly similar. Each species was enclosed both alone and with the other. Tenodera sinensis, which normally hatches earlier, was unaffected by M. religiosa, but exhibited intraspecific density-dependent mortality. In contrast, survival and body size of M. religiosa declined in the presence of T. sinensis. As a result, body size ratios (T. sinensis: M. religiosa), were greater in enclosures containing both species

 

Hurd, L.E. ; 1994 ; Cannibalism reverse male biased sex ratio in adult mantids: female strategy against food

Source : Oikos ; 0030-1299 ; 69(2):193-198,

abstract: Abstract Adult populations of the mantid, Tenodera sinesis (Saussure) initially were male-biased, but females outnumbered males by the end of the life cycle because mortality was higher among males than among females. Male mantids were the most frequent items in the diet of females during oogenesis, when food limitation generally is greatest. Males had an 83% chance of escaping cannibalism during any given encounter with a female; however, females continued to attract males after first mating, raising the cumulative probability of male death with increasing number of intersexual encounters. We suggest female mantids continue to attract and cannabalize males beyond their need for sperm as a strategy to alleviate food limitation during oogenesis. This is more parsimonious than the adaptive suicide hypothesis, in which male fitness is enhanced by investment of his biomass in his offspring, since our

 

Hurd, L.E. ; 1995 ; Time, temperature, and food as determinants o population persistence in the temperate mantid Tenodera sinensi (Mantodea: Mantidae)

Source : Environmental Entomology ; 0046-225X ; 24: 348 353

abstract: Characteristics of a well-established population of the mantid, Tenodera sinensis (Saussure), were examined during the adult portion of its life cycle, for three consecutive years (1990-1992). During the fall of 1992, changes in body mass of females in well-fed and starved experimental cohorts were compared with those in the open field, as a measure of food limitation in this population. The open field cohort maintained mean body mass at a level intermediate to the experimental cohorts. However, some individuals in the field did as well as those in the well-fed cohort, whereas none did as poorly as in the starved cohort. Ootheca production was greatly reduced in 1992 compared with the previous 2 yr. This could not be attributed to food limitation, because even well-fed experimental animals failed to oviposit. Lower temperatures in 1992 slowed development rate, reducing the number of females that reached imago in time to oviposit before killing frost. Thus, even when food limitation is not severe, stochastic

 

Hurd, L.E. ; 1988 ; Consequences of divergent egg phenology to predatio and coexistence in two sympatric, congeneric mantids (Orthoptera:Mantidae)

Source : Oecologia (Berlin)/=Oecologia (Heidelberg) ; 0029-8549/0013-8797 ; 76: 4, 549-552

abstract: The temporal disparity in egg hatch between 2 sympatric, congeneric mantid species, Tenodera sinensis [T. aridifolia sinensis] and T. angustipennis, was investigated in the laboratory using oothecae collected in Delaware in 1986. T. aridifolia sinensis hatched first, and had begun to enter the 2nd-instar by the time T. angustipennis started to hatch. As a result, there was asynchrony in development times such that several different instars could be present during the first month of life when mantid population densities were high and prey availability was low. The body length ratio of larger to smaller nymphs was most commonly more than or equal to 1.37 in favour of T. aridifolia sinensis. This character divergence suggested allochronic niche separation which may alleviate competition for prey. However, this same ratio appeared to be the threshold for both interspecific predation and cannibalism among these bitrophic generalist predators. Therefore T. aridifolia sinensis, which is nearly always larger, may have a selective advantage by

 

Hurd, L.E. ; 1978 ; Effects of experimentally manipulated density on field populations of the Chines mantis (Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure)

Source : American Midland Naturalist ; 0003-0031 ; 99 (1) : 58-64

abstract: Two experimental densities of mantids (T. a. sinensis Saussure) were introduced into replicated field plots with controls in the spring of 1975. These populations and the arthropod component of the community, were sampled for the duration of the maturation period for Tenodera terminating in late July. Examination of survivorship for mantis nymphs revealed an apparent density-independent mortality early in the season, followed by a density-dependent mortality later. Rate of maturation was also density-dependent, with the high density plots exhibiting a slower rate. Food limitation was not a direct density-dependent limitation either to survivorship or development rate, since no differences were found in the arthropod component of the community between density treatments, or between

 

Hurd, L.E. ; 1989 ; Influence of temperature and photoperiod on early developmental rate of Tenoder sinensis Saussure (Mantodea: Mantidae)

Source : Proceedings of the Entomological Society of ; 0013-8797 ; 529 533

abstract: The rate of development for nymphs in the first 2 instars of the predatory mantid Tenodera sinensis [T. aridifolia sinensis] increased with increasing temperature for cohorts maintained at 20, 25 and 32 deg C. An increase in incubation temperature from 20 to 32 deg C decreased time in an instar by more than two-thirds for photoperiods of LD 8:16, 16:8 and 24:0. The effect of photoperiod was less pronounced, partly because immobile mantid nymphs could feed in the dark when nocturnally active prey came into contact with them. Total prey consumed (apterous Drosophila melanogaster) and biomass of nymphs at ecdysis did not differ among treatment groups. The effect of temperature apparently was to increase feeding rate, thereby decreasing the time required to consume the threshold

 

Hurd, L.E. ; 1989 ; Temporal distribution of hatchin times in three sympatric mantids (Mantodea: Mantidae) with implication for niche separation and coexistence

Source : Proceedings of the Entomological Society of ; 0013-8797 ; 91: 55 58

abstract: Timing of egg hatching was studied in the mantids Tenodera sinensis [T. aridifolia sinensis], T. angustipennis and Mantis religiosa, using 12 oothecae of each species collected from 2 sites in Delaware on 10 February 1986 and incubated at 25 deg C. Eggs of T. aridifolia sinensis began hatching after 18 days of incubation and hatching continued for 11 days. T. angustipennis did not start hatching until T. aridifolia sinensis had finished and the duration of hatch was 6 days. Hatching time for M. religiosa overlapped with both Tenodera species, and unlike these species, all but one ootheca produced nymphs on consecutive days. The distribution of hatching differed between the 2 sites for M. religiosa only. It is suggested that the temporal disparity in egg hatch may be one mechanism of coexistence

 

Idowu A B. ; 1997 ; The defensive mechanisms of Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Orthoptera Pyrogomorphidae) against potential predators.

Source : Journal of African Zoology ; 0251-074X ; 111(3):199-203

abstract: Experiments were carried out to determine the role of the repellent gland of adult and juvenile Zonocerus variegatus protecting it against vertebrate and invertebrate predators found in the grasshoppers habitat. When approached, the later instars of Zonocerus variegatus eject a repellent secretion in the form of a jet-like spray from the abdominal region of the body. The secretion has a penetrating and disagreeable odour which can even be perceived by human beings from a distance of several centimetres. Praying mantids were not affected, but ants and lizard were repelled by the secretion. It is suggested that the rejection and avoidance of the grasshopper by these latter predators is probably due to the unpleasant odour of the insect. The experiments indicate that the grasshopper invests mare in the

 

Ingrisch, S. ; 1987 ; Contribution to the Orthoptera fauna of Nepal (Orthroptera).

Source : Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. ; 0012-0073 ; 34: 1-3, 113-139

abstract: During a trekking tour in central Nepal and the Terai, 84 species of Saltatoria and 5 of Mantodea were collected. Eight species are described as new. Numbers taken are indicated for each species.

 

Inoue, T. ; 1983 ; Foraging strategy of a mantid,Paratenodera angustipennis S : mechanisms of switching tactics betwee ambush and active search Oecologia

Source : Oecologia (Berlin)/=Oecologia (Heidelberg) ; 0029-8549/0013-8797 ; 56: 264 271

abstract: The foraging strategies of the mantid Tenodera angustipennis Sauss. (Paratenodera angustipennis) were studied in laboratory and field observations in Japan to determine how mantids assess the profitability of their location and, based on this, how they switch tactics. Although mantids are often considered to be ambush predators, nymphs and adult females were observed to change their tactics from ambushing to active searching when they did not capture any prey for more than about 2 days (nymphs) and 3 days (females). Switching between the 2 tactics was such that the females and nymphs spent more time searching in sites with higher prey densities. Males, however, did not change their tactics according to hunger level and prey density in the hunting site. They moved around more than twice as

 

Islamov, Sh. D. ; 1989 ; Sphecid wasps (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae), hunting orthopterous insects in the Western Tyan'-Shan. [Russian]

Source : Uzbekiston Biologija Zurnali ; ; 5, 49-50.

abstract: Sphecids collected in montane regions of the Tashkent district of Uzbekistan, USSR, in 1966-88 were found to prey on Orthoptera in pastures. Sphex rufocinctus preyed on Tettigonia viridissima. Larvae of Prionyx lividocinctus fed on Calliptamus italicus, and those of Eremochares dives also fed on acridids. Mantid larvae and acridids were found in a

 

Iwasaki, T. ; 1996 ; Life history of the first generation of the dermestrid beetle,Thaumaglossa rufocapillata

Source : Applied Entomology and Zoology ; 0003-6862 ; 31(3): 389 395.

abstract: The life history of the dermestid Thaumaglossa rufocapillata in summer in Japan has been unknown, although adults are seen in spring and autumn, and the larvae of the overwintering generation are found in overwintering egg cases of praying mantids. Hatched egg cases of Tenodera aridifolia and T. angustipennis were collected in southern Osaka in the summer of 1993 and 1994, and activities of the dermestid were observed. Adults emerged from August to October in 1993 and 1994. These individuals were considered to be the 1st generation. The temporal pattern of emergence was similar between the Tenodera species. The mean number of adults emerging from an egg case, which ranged from 5.5 to 9.1, did not differ significantly between the two species in the two years. The sex ratio in emerging adults was not biased from 1:1. Adult dermestids of the 1st generation emerged from 56.3% of hatched egg cases in T. aridifolia and 70.0% in T. angustipennis in 1993, and the rates were 65.0 and 70.0%, resp., in 1994. The rates of the 1st generation were much higher than those of the overwintering one. The bethylid Laelius sp. was observed for the

 

Iwasaki, T. ; 1991 ; Predatory behavior of the praying mantis, Tenoder aridifolia II Combined effect of prey size and predator size on pre recognition

Source : Journal of Ethology ; 0289-0771 ; 9: 77 81

abstract: The predatory behaviour of Tenodera aridifolia, as a function of the combined effect of size and size of prey, was investigated by using prey models. Behavioural responses were almost identical through the nymphal development in the predator. As mantids grew, they attacked larger prey models, suggesting that they recognized prey size in relation to their own body size. The ratio of prey volume to the cube and square of predator length was a more important parameter for prey recognition than are one-dimensional parameters of prey and predator sizes.

 

Iwasaki, T. ; 1992 ; Stage duration size and coloration of two praying mantises Tenodera aridifolia Stoll and Tenodera angustipennisSaussure Mantodeae Mantidae

Source : Japanese Journal of Entomology. ; 0915-5805 ; 60 (3): 551-557

abstract: Tenodera aridifolia and T. angustipennis were reared outside, but sheltered from direct sunlight, in Kyoto, Honshu, Japan, in 1988. After hatching nymphs were kept individually to prevent cannibalism. Most individuals reached maturity through 7 nymphal instars, although a few males (15% of T. aridifolia males and 11% of T. angustipennis males) only showed 6 instars. In the 7-instar type, adults of T. aridifolia were larger (mean male and female body lengths were 78.4 and 83.5 mm, resp.) than those of T. angustipennis (75.0 and 78.4 mm, resp.). Nymphs hatched between 26 April and 11 June in T. aridifolia and between 8 and 15 June in T. angustipennis. The nymphal stage lasted 96.4 and 94.5 days in males and females, resp., of T. aridifolia and 76.8 and 72.8 days in males and females of T. angustipennis in the 7-instar type. In both species, males of the 6-instar type were larger than those of the 7-instar type in the 6th instar, but the size relation was reversed in the adults. Observations of adults in Kyoto and Osaka Prefectures in 1988-90 showed that green adults were more common than brown adults in both species (82.7% green

 

Iwasaki, T. ; 1991 ; The tachinid fly exorista-bisetosa parasitizing the mantis tenodera-angustipennis.

Source : Japanese Journal of Entomology. ; 0915-5805 ; 59 (2):256.

abstract: An adult female Tenodera angustipennis was collected from a field in Honshu, Japan, in 1990. A larva of the parasitoid Exorista bisetosa emerged from the insect.

 

Iwasaki, T. ; 1998 ; Prey menus of two praying mantises, Tenodera aridifolia (Stoll) and Tenodera angustipennis Saussure (Mantodea: Mantidae).

Source : Entomological Science ; ; 1: 4, 529-532

abstract: The prey of Tenodera aridifolia was investigated in a grassland in Koumyoike and that of T. angustipennis in or around paddy fields in Kanaoka, southern Osaka, Japan, during April-December 1989. Proportions of feeding individuals in younger nymphs (1st- to 3rd-instar), older nymphs (4th- to 7th-instar), and adults were 1.1, 2.0, and 1.8%, respectively, in T. aridifolia, and 1.4, 2.2, and 2.1%, respectively, in T. angustipennis. These proportions did not significantly differ in the corresponding stages between the two species. The two mantids preyed on various groups of insects and spiders. The younger nymphs preyed on Diptera most frequently, while the proportion of Diptera in the prey menu decreased during development for both species. It is suggested that the habitat segregation between the

 

Iwasaki, T. ; 1996 ; Comparative studies on the life histories of two praying mantises Tenodera aridifolia (Stoll) and Tenodera angustipennis Saussure (Mantodea: mantidae): I Temporal pattern of egg hatch and nymphal development.

Source : Applied Entomology and Zoology ; 0003-6862 ; 31(3): 345 356

abstract: The habitats of two praying mantises, Tenodera aridifolia and T. angustipennis, comprised different parts of grasslands in central Japan. The life histories were investigated in the habitat where each species was predominant. Egg hatch, nymphal development and adult emergence of the larger mantis, T. aridifolia, occurred earlier than those of the smaller congener, T. angustipennis. These three aspects of development of the former species were more divergent in timing than those of the latter. Durations and survival rates of nymphal and adult stages were slightly longer and

 

Iwasaki, T. ; 1990 ; Predatory behavior of the praying mantis, Tenoder aridifolia I Effect of prey size on prey

Source : Journal of Ethology ; 0289-0771 ; 8(2): 75 79

abstract: Predatory behavior and effect of prey size of the praying mantis, Tenodera aridifolia, was investigated using three- dimensional prey models. Parameters of prey such as width, length, shape (length/width), area (width .times. length) and volume were investigated for effects on Watch and Attack responses. Regression analyses suggest that volume is the most important variable in prey recognition. This behavioral trait is considered adaptive, since prey volume is the

 

Iwasaki, T. ; 1998 ; Adult overwintering and oviposition of first generation of dermestid beetle, Thaumaglossa

Source : Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology & Zoology ; 0021-4914 ; .42: 3, 170-171

abstract: First generation T. rufocapillata adults emerging from hatched egg cases of Tenodera spp. mantises in autumn were reared under semi-natural conditions. Some of the adults fed on 10% honey overwintered and survived until the next summer. Females laid eggs in autumn and resumed egg laying in spring. No females overwintered when reared without food and water, or when feeding was stopped in mid-November. The authors conclude that adult longevity of the first generation is limited in winter by food supply, not low temperatures, and that this may have implications for

 

Iwasaki, T. ; 1994 ; Emergence periods of overwintering generation from mantis egg case and oviposition, and longevity of adult dermestid beetle, Thaumaglossa rufocapillata.

Source : Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology & Zoology ; 0021-4914 ; 38: 3, 147-151

abstract: Seasonal changes in numbers of adults of the dermestid Thaumaglossa rufocapillata, emerging from egg cases of 2 species of praying mantises, Tenodera aridifolia and T. angustipennis, were investigated, and the newly-emerged dermestid adults were reared under quasi-natural conditions. The adults emerged from the mantis egg cases in May and June. The emergence peaks were earlier in males than in females for egg cases of both mantis species. Emergence began earlier from egg cases of T. aridifolia than from T. angustipennis in both sexes of the dermestid. Oviposition was observed from late May through to mid-August, and the mean fecundity was about 10 eggs per female. Although males and females survived for about 2 months after emergence, all died before September when adult T. aridifolia and T. angustipennis start oviposition. Out of 23 hatched egg cases of the praying mantises, 2

 

Jakubczak, J. L. ; 1991 ; Retrotransposable elements R1 and R2 interrupt the rRNA genes of most insects.

Source : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ; 0027-8424 ; 88: 8, 3295-3299

abstract: United States of America A large number of insect species were screened for the presence of the retrotransposable elements R1 and R2. These elements integrate independently at specific sites in the 28S rRNA genes. Genomic blots indicated that 43 of 47 insect species from 9 orders contained insertions, ranging in frequency from a few percent to more than 50% of the 28S genes. (Acheta domesticus, Pseudococcus affinis, Malacosoma americanum and an unidentified carabid had no insertions). Sequence analysis of these insertions from 8 species (Nasonia vitripennis, Sphecius speciosus, Tibicen sp., an unidentified xylocopine bee, Dissoteira carolina, Blaberus craniifer, Mantis religiosa, Popillia japonica) revealed 22 elements, 21 of which corresponded to R1 or R2 elements. Surprisingly, many species appeared to contain highly divergent copies of R1 and R2 elements. For example, the parasitic wasp N. vitripennis contained at least 4 families of R1 elements; the beetle P. japonica contained at least 5 families of R2 elements. The presence of these retrotransposable elements throughout the Insecta and the observation that single species can harbour divergent families within its rRNA-encoding DNA loci present interesting questions concerning the age of these elements and the

 

Jantsch L J ; 1984 ; Description of a new species of neotropical Mantodea Mantidae Vatinae

Source : Revista Brasileira Entomologia ; 0085-5626 ; 28 (3) : 257-260

abstract: *

 

Jantsch L J ; 1984 ; Localization of oothecae of some praying mantises in rio-grande-do-sul mantodea.

Source : Revista Brasileira Entomologia ; 0085-5626 ; 28 (4) : 415-416.

abstract: The position of mantis oothecae on plants was studied on the basis of 393 field observations, including oothecae where the nymphs had already eclosed. The infero-longitudinal position was observed in oothecae of mantises of the genera Brunneria and Parastagmoptera. The axillary position in the region of branchings was adopted by Coptopteryx spp. in 74% of the cases. Species of this genus did not seem to have any requirements as to thickness. The foliar position (ventral or dorsal) was observed in the genera Acontiothespis, Orthoderella, and Miobantia, in plant regions more exposed to sun. The distance of the oothecae from the ground was presented in tabular form. Of the oothecae 72% collected were between 1-2 m above ground, which would protect the mantises from enemies on the soil and

 

Jantsch L J ; 1991 ; List of mantids collected on maraca island.

Source : Acta Amazonica ; 0044-5967 ; 21 (1). 123-130 année (1992)

Jantsch L J ; 1991 ; new species of eumiopteryx from para mantodea mantidae pseudomiopteryginae.

Source : Revista Brasileira Entomologia ; 0085-5626 ; 35 (3): 577-578.

abstract: Euniopteryx magna, sp. n. from Para (Brazil) is described. A key to the species of Eumiopteryx is added.

 

Jantsch L J ; 1992 ; Description of males of Phyllovates-iheringi and Phyllovates-brevicornis Mantodea Mantidae Vatinae Vatini

Source : Revista Brasileira Entomologia ; 0085-5626 ; 36 (1): 79-83

abstract: Males of Phylovates iheringi and P. brevicornis are described.

 

Johns P M. ; 1997 ; Sexual cannibalism: Who benefits?

Source : Trends Ecol. Evol.. ; 0169-5347 ; 12(4): 127-128

Kabilov, T. K. ; 1980 ; The life-cycle of Abbreviata kazachstanica.

Source : Parazitologiia ; 0031-1847 ; 14: 3, 263-270

abstract: In the Dzhizakskaya area of the Uzbek SSR, Tenebrionidae (Dila laevicollis, Prosodes sp., P. nitida, P. baeri, Pimelia verrucosa and Stalagmoptera confusa), Gryllidae (Gryllus bimaculatus) and Mantidae (Hierodula tenuidentata) were recorded as intermediate hosts of A. kazachstanica, a parasite of Ophisaurus aphodus. 12 further insect species (6 Acrididae, one Tettigonidae and 5 Tenebrionidae) were infected in the laboratory. The development of A. kazachstanica from ovum to infective larva took place in Orthoptera in 20 to 23 days and in Coleoptera in 26 to 29 days. (The first 2 moults took place in the egg before it was laid). The infective larva measures 3.65 to 11.15 mm long and is enclosed in a bright brown capsule which varies in size according to the host species. A. kazachstanica was infective in the laboratory, not only to O. aphodus but also to frogs and geckoes which may be considered as paratenic

 

Kaltenbach A P ; 1987 ; new species and synonymies of east and central african amelinae mantoidea mantidae.

Source : Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien Serie B ; 0255-0105 ; 91 (1990) : 93-98.

abstract: Botanik und Zoologie In the present paper the following species and subspecies of Amelinae, new to science, are described: Entella rukwaensis n. sp., Ligaria backlundi n. sp., Gonypetella carinata n. sp. and Gonypetella kilimandjarica hyaloptera n. spp. The hitherto unknown phallic complex of the male of Gonypetella flavicornis (SJOSTEDT) is figured and described. Entella ugandensis WERNER and Gonypetella uvarovi BEIER are synonyms of Gonypetella flavicornis.

 

Kaltenbach A P ; 1996 ; Unterlagen für eine Monographie der Mantodea des südlichen Afrika: 1. Artenbestand, geographische Verbreitung und Ausbreitungsgrenzen (Insecta: Mantodea)

Source : Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien Serie B ; 0255-0105 ; 98(0): 193-346

abstract: Botanik und Zoologie The results of studies on Mantodea of Southern Africa during the last 12 years are presented. This research is based on a large number of specimens received for identification from African and European entomological institutions. The composition of the Southern African fauna of praying mantids and the distribution of the species were investigated. Sixty-six genera and 185 species of Mantodea are presently known from Southern Africa. Six genera, one subgenus, 28 species and one subspecies are regarded as new for science. A checklist is including new synonyma. Finally, the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of some species is discussed.

 

Kaltenbach A P ; 1994 ; A new species of the genus Gonypeta Saussure from Thailand (Insecta: Mantodea:

Source : Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien Serie B ; 0255-0105 ; 96 : 69-73

abstract: Botanik und Zoologie Gonypeta brigittae sp.n., a new species of the subfamily Amelinae of the Mantidae is described from Thailand. A key is given for identifying the males of the genus Gonypeta and the distribution of the species of Gonypeta, known up to

 

Kaltenbach A P ; 1994 ; Bisanthe menyharthi (Brancsik, 1895): Clinal variation, subspecies formation and geographical distribution (Insecta: Mantodea: Mantidae).

Source : Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien Serie B ; 0255-0105 ; 96 : 59-67.

abstract: Botanik und Zoologie Results are given of a study, based upon 50 specimens of Bisanthe menyharthi (BRANCSIK), a Southern African Praying Mantis, known up to now only from two localities in Mozambique and Zambia. After examining new material from Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana clinal variations were shown of some characters, typically to this species. The hypophallus of the male external genitalia reveals remarkable modifications in the populations south of the Zambezi river. This is correlated with a decrease of the length of pronotum in the Southern populations of B. menyharthi, clearly illustrated by a scatter diagram. The new subspecies B. menyharthi raggei ssp. n. is described. Isolines of the Effective Temperature (sensu Bailey), drawn on a map showing the dispersal of the species and subspecies of Bisanthe demonstrate the influence of climatic factors upon the clinal variation. The type specimen of B. menyharthi was

 

Kaltenbach A P ; 1993 ; Blattodea Mantodea and Ensifera Orthoptera from Mongolia

Source : Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) ; 0003-6862/0003-4541 ; 44 (1-7): 3-15.

abstract: On the base of the materials collected in Mongolia by the expeditions of the Institute of Zoology PAS in Warsaw 23 species of orthopteroid insects are recorded: Mantodea - 1, Blattodea - 2 and Ensifera (Grylloptera) - 20 species, among them Gampsocleis gratiosa burakowskii ssp. n.

 

Kaltenbach A P ; 1979 ; Ergebnisse einiger Sammelreisen nach Vorderasien. 7. Mantodea und Saltatoria

Source : Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien Serie B ; 0255-0105 ; 83: 575-584. publ. 1980

abstract: Botanik und Zoologie During surveys carried out in Western Asia in 1970, 1972 and 1974, 42 specimens of Mantodea belonging to 8 species, and 177 specimens of Saltatoria belonging to 36 species, were collected. The species are listed, with collection locality and general distributional data, and a new species of Gryllopsis is described. Notes 1 fig.

 

Kaltenbach A P ; 1982 ; A new Amorphoscelis from Afghanistan Mantodea Amorphoscelididae.

Source : Zeitschrift der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Oesterreichischer ; ; 34 (3-4) : 81-84

abstract: Entomologen

 

Kaltenbach A P ; 1991 ; A further contribution to the knowledge of the Mantodea of the Arabian Peninsula.

Source : Fauna of Saudi Arabia, vol. 12.Pro Entomologica, ; 3-7234-0012-4 ; 246-255

abstract: Naturhistorisches Museum, Basle, Switzerland Three new species are described and new localities are given for 18 species of Mantodea previously recorded from the Arabian Peninsula.

 

Kaltenbach A P ; 1968 ; Results of the austrian New-caledonian expedition 1965 new and little known orthoptera from New-caledonia part 1 Mantodea Saltatoria excluding Gryllodea and Dermaptera.

Source : Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien Serie B ; 0255-0105 ; 72 : 539-556

abstract: Botanik und Zoologie

 

Kambhampati S. ; 1995 ; A phylogeny of cockroaches and related insects based on DNA sequence of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes.

Source : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ; 0027-8424 ; 92 (6) : 2017-2020

abstract: United States of America Cockroaches are among the most ancient winged insects, the earliest fossils dating back to about 400 million years. Several conflicting phylogenies for cockroach families, subfamilies, and genera have been proposed in the past. In addition, the relationship of Cryptocercidae to other cockroach families and the relationship between the cockroach, Cryptocercus punctulatus, and the termite, Mastotermes darwiniensis, have generated debate. In this paper, a phylogeny for cockroaches, mantids, and termites based on DNA sequence of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes is presented. The results indicated that cockroaches are a monophyletic group, whose sister group is Mantoidea. The inferred relationship among cockroach families was in agreement with the presently accepted phylogeny. However, there was only partial congruence at the subfamily and the generic levels. The phylogeny inferred here does not support a close relationship between C. punctulatus and M. darwiniensis. The apparent synapomorphies of these two species are likely a manifestation of convergent evolution because there are similarities in biology and habitat. Molecular Sequence GENBANK/U17761, GENBANK/U17762, GENBANK/U17763, GENBANK/U17764, GENBANK/U17765, GENBANK/U17766, GENBANK/U17767, GENBANK/U17768, GENBANK/U17769, GENBANK/U17770, GENBANK/U17771, GENBANK/U17772, GENBANK/U17773, GENBANK/U17774, GENBANK/U17775, GENBANK/U17776, GENBANK/U17777, GENBANK/U17778, GENBANK/U17779, GENBANK/U17780, GENBANK/U17781, GENBANK/U17782, GENBANK/U17783, GENBANK/U17784, GENBANK/U17785, GENBANK/U17786, GENBANK/U17787, GENBANK/U17788, GENBANK/U17789,

 

Kamp J W. ; 1973 ; Numerical classification of the orthopteroids with special reference to the Grylloblattodea.

Source : Canad.Ent. ; 0008-347X ; 105 (9) : 1235-1249

Kanmiya, K. ; 1983 ; A systematic study of the Japanese Chloropidae (Diptera).

Source : Entomological Society of Washington, Washington, DC, ; ; 370 pp

abstract: A revised classification of the Chloropidae of Japan is presented which includes a historical review, data on geographical distribution, feeding habits and economic importance, descriptions of species, diagnoses of genera and bibliographies. Three subfamilies, 53 genera and 143 species are recognised on the basis of examination of about 7000 specimens. The former generic grouping is discussed and 6 new genus groups are proposed. Two genera, 1 subgenus and 34 species are described as new. One generic and 4 specific synonyms, 12 new combinations, 1 new name and 11 changes of specific determination are included. Keys are provided for the identification of the subfamilies, genera and species known in Japan. For some genera containing many similar species common to the Oriental Region, complete keys covering the regional species are added after examination of most of the known species described from the region. Most male genitalia and female terminalia are described and illustrated. The new species described include Kurumemyia ongamea gen. et sp. n., including specimens reared from oothecae of Tenodera angustipennis Sauss., and Meromyza grandifemoris sp. n., feeding mainly on wild plants but occasionally attacking agricultural crops including wheat. In addition, larvae of Speccafrons pallidinervis (Becker) comb. n. were found feeding on egg-masses of spiders including Neoscona doenitzi (Bosenberg & Strand). Notes 430 fig., 260 x 180 mm. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington, No. 11.

 

Karuppanan U . ; 1998 ; Regeneration in the limbs of mantids (Dictyoptera:Mantidae).

Source : Journal of Ecobiology ; 0970-9037 ; 10: 1, 27-36

abstract: There is a close relationship between the reproduction of appendages and moulting. The regeneration commences generally at the femoro-trochanteric suture. The growth rate of regenerated limbs is related to the point of amputation of limbs and also the remaining period to the next moult after amputation. The first and the last instar nymphs take a longer period to regenerate the lost parts of the limbs. The female nymph has greater regenerative power than the male. Generally, the regenerated limbs are smaller and more slender than the normal limbs. The regenerated limbs have five tarsomeres when amputation is done behind the fourth tarsomere and four tarsomeres when amputation is

 

Karuppanan U . ; 1997 ; The formation and morphology of oothecae of Humbertiella ceylonica Saussre and Gongylus gongyloides (Dictyoptera: Mantidae).

Source : Journal of Ecobiology ; 0970-9037 ; 9: 1, 41-47

abstract: The oothecae of two species of mantids (Humbertiella ceylonica and Gongylus gongylodes) were studied. In the ootheca of H. ceylonica, the egg chambers were arranged in an irregular manner. The protective covering was relatively thick and emergence pores were not distinctly visible. The ootheca of G. gongylodes had a regular arrangement of hexagonal egg chambers in 4 rows. A longitudinal septum separated the two rows of dorsal emergence pores. A single ootheca of H. ceylonica contained 40 to 100 eggs, whereas 11 to 43 eggs were found in

 

Karuppanan U . ; 1987 ; Effect of food, light and darkness on the number of instars and stadial periods in a mantid Euantissa pulchra (Fabricius) (Dictyoptera: Mantidae).

Source : Madras Agricultural Journal ; 0024-9602 ; 74: 8-9, 377-380.

abstract: The effect of food availability, light and darkness on the period of nymphal development and number of instars in Euantissa pulchra was investigated in the laboratory using Drosophila as prey. Neither food availability nor illumination had any effect on the number of moults, but the nymphal period was prolonged as the intervals between meals were increased. The period of nymphal development was longer in female nymphs than in males.

 

Karuppanan U . ; 1997 ; Effect of continuous darkness on the development of a mantid Euantissa pulchra (Fab) Dictyoptera: Mantidae.

Source : Journal of Ecotoxicology & Environmental Monitoring. ; ; 7: 1, 49-53

abstract: The effects of conditions of continuous darkness were investigated in Euantissa pulchra. Feeding rate, mating behaviour, reproductive capacity and hatching rate were reduced and behaviour patterns were disrupted. Preoviposition period, incubation period and longevity of adults were also significantly increased.

 

Karuppanan U . ; 1996 ; Studies on variation of ovariole number in some mantids (Dictyoptera: Mantidae).

Source : Journal of Ecobiology ; 0970-9037 ; 8: 4, 303-310

abstract: The variation in the structure of the ovary in the newly emerged and matured female mantids Euantissa pulchra, Elmantis trincomaliae, Creobroter pictipennis, Parathespis humbertiana, Humbertiella ceylonica and Hierodula sp. have been reported. The rate of tracheole development between the ovarioles, the position of the ovary and the length of ovarioles in the body cavity are related to the growth rate of oocytes. The number of ovarioles and its asymmetry in arrangement are related to the abdomen size and body length of female mantids. The sinus number is

 

Karuppanan U . ; 1996 ; Effect of food and light on leg regeneration in a mantid Euantissa pulchra (Dictyoptera:

Source : Journal of Ecotoxicology & Environmental Monitoring. ; ; 6: 2, 113-121

abstract: Euantissa pulchra is a mantid which feeds on live insects only. The growth rate of the normal and regenerated legs is related to feeding rate, interval between meals, length of legs amputated, number of moults and sex. Continuous illumination enhances the growth rate of leg regeneration, whereas starvation retards the growth of regenerated legs. The regenerated legs and their segments are shorter than the normal legs. The regeneration of legs prolongs the

 

Karuppanan U . ; 1996 ; Rate of food consumption in the praying mantids (Dictyoptera: Mantidae) with reference to body and mandibular size and oviposition cycle.

Source : Journal of Ecobiology ; 0970-9037 ; 8: 2, 129-134

abstract: The feeding rate and behaviour of adult males and females of Euantissa pulchra, Elmantis trincomaliae, Humbertiella ceylonica and Hierodula sp. were related to body size and species. Females had larger abdomens, crops and mandibles and consumed more prey faster than the corresponding males. The duration of the preoviposition period and the rate of food consumption were related to the growth rate of oocytes and the body size of females.

 

Karuppanan U . ; 1991 ; Studies on ovariole of mantids (Dictyoptera: Mantidae).

Source : Madras Agricultural Journal ; 0024-9602 ; 78: 1-4, 153-155

abstract: The ovarioles of Euantissa pulchra, Elmantis trincomaliae, Creborter pictipennis, Parathespis humbertiana, Humbertiella ceylonica and Hierodula sp. were studied. The colour, position and length of the ovarioles were significantly related to the age and growth rate of the oocytes. The number of ovarioles was higher in the right ovary than in the left and increased with the size of the mantid species and of the abdomen. The number of eggs deposited

 

Karuppanan U . ; 1991 ; Studies on Humbertiella ceylonica Saussure (Dictyoptera: Mantidae) with special reference to the number of ovarioles in the seasonal cycles.

Source : Madras Agricultural Journal ; 0024-9602 ; . 78: 1-4, 67-69

abstract: The structure and number of ovarioles was studied in adult females of Humbertiella ceylonica collected from the field in India. The position of the ovarioles changed during development. Rainy and summer seasons favoured high egg production, but body length and season were not related to the number of ovarioles.

 

Karuppanan U . ; 1993 ; Growth of antennae in the nymphs and adults of a mantid, Euantissa pulchra (Fab.) (Dictyoptera: Mantidae).

Source : Journal of Insect Science ; 0970-3837 ; 6 (1):102-103

abstract: The length of antennae, related to the body length, is virtually same in the early nymphal stages of both sexes of Euantissa pulchra (Fab.) and varied according to sex after the development of external sexual characters. It progressively increased in length in the male nymphs and regressed in the females.

 

Karuppanan U . ; 1991 ; Morphology and significance of the salivary reservoir in the praying mantids (Dictyoptera:

Source : Madras Agricultural Journal ; 0024-9602 ; 78: 1-4, 69-71

abstract: The morphology of the salivary gland was studied in Euantissa pulchra, Elmantis trincomaliae, Humbertiella ceylonica and Hierodula sp., collected from the field in Tamil Nadu, India. The size of the reservoir and the length of the duct were directly related to body size and to the length of the pro- and mesothoracic segments, resp. Females had larger salivary glands than males, enabling them to consume more prey.

 

Karuppanan U . ; 1990 ; Studies on the Malpighian tubules in the mantid Euantissa pulchra (Fabricius)

Source : Madras Agricultural Journal ; 0024-9602 ; 77: 5-6, 265-266

Kawasaki, H. ; 1983 ; The identification of two N-acyldopamine glucosides in the left colleterial gland of the praying mantid, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Saussure, and their role in the oothecal

Source : Insect Biochemistry ; 0020-1790 ; 13: 3, 267-271

abstract: Two glucosides were found in the left colleterial gland of Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Sauss. and identified as 3-O- beta -glucosides of N-acetyldopamine and N-malonyldopamine. beta -Glucosidase activity was detected in the right colleterial gland. Extracts from sclerotised oothecae were found to contain a number of phenolic compounds modified particularly at the beta -position of aglucones. This indicated that both of the aglucones acted as sclerotising agents, and suggests the possible occurrence of beta -sclerotisation in mantid oothecae.

 

Kenchington W. ; 1969 ; The hatching thread of praying mantids an unusual chitinous structure.

Source : Journal of Morphology ; 0022-2887/0362-2525 ; 129 (3) : 307-316

Kenchington W. ; 1974 ; Experimentally induced in-vivo increase in size of calcium citrate crystals in praying

Source : Journal of Insect Physiology ; 0022-1910 ; 20 (10) : 2043-2047

Kerzhner, I. M. ; 1994 ; A.A.H. Lichtenstein's (1796, 1797) Catalogus musei zoologici proposed suppression, with conservation of some Lichtenstein (1796) names (Insecta and Arachnida).

Source : Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature ; ; 51: 2, 108-115

abstract: It is proposed that the very rare and usually neglected publications by Lichtenstein (1796, 1797) enTitled Catalogus musei zoologici ...Sectio tertia. Continens Insecta and by Schneider (1800) enTitled Verzeichniss einer Parthei Insekten be suppressed for nomenclature purposes. Despite this, the conservation as from Lichtenstein (1796) is recommended of 1 generic name (Solpuga) and 20 specific names being in general current usage (e.g. Vespa chrysothorax (now Polybia chrysothorax) and V. coloboptera (now Parachartergus colobopterus)).

 

Kevan, D. K. McE. ; 1990 ; More on mantids meat and myth

Source : Entomologist's Monthly Magazine ; 0013-8908 ; 126 (1516-1519). 1990. 191-196

abstract: A compendium of accounts of mantids attacking living vertebrates including small birds, snakes and mice, and of them feeding off dead vertebrate flesh is presented. [See also Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 121: 1-8 (1989)]

 

Key K H L. ; 1974 ; Mantodea praying mantids.

Source : Aust csiro div entomol. the insects of australia. a textbook ; ISBN 0-522-84070-1. ; 40-41.

abstract: for students and research workers. Aust csiro div entomol. the insects of australia. a textbook for students and research workers. SUPPLEMENT 1974. VIII+146P. ILLUS. MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY PRESS: CARLTON, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA. (DIST. IN U.S.A. AND CANADA BY INTERNATIONAL SCHOLARLY BOOK SERVICES, INC., PORTLAND, OREG.). ISBN 0-522-84070-1. 1974. 40-41.

 an other version is

 Title MANTODEA PRAYING MANTIDS. Source WATERHOUSE, D. F. (DIRECTED BY). THE INSECTS OF AUSTRALIA; A TEXTBOOK FOR STUDENTS AND RESEARCH WORKERS. XIII + 1029P. ILLUS. MELBOURNE UNIVERSITY PRESS: CARLTON, VICTORIA,

 

Kirby W. F. ; 1904 ; A synonimic catalogue of Orthoptera Vol I

Source : the Trustees of the British Museum ; ; 207-316

Kirmse, W. ; 1997 ; Comparison of pharmacological studies on Ootheca Mantidis. [Chinese]

Source : Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi ; 1001-5302 ; 22(8):496-499, 513

abstract: The pharmacological effects of three species of Ootheca Mantidises were compared. The results indicate that Tenodera sinensis can increase the index of testis and thymus gland, and has an antidiuretic effect in mice; Statilia maculate can prolong the swimming time and ordinary pressing anoxia, increase the index of spleen and thymus gland, raise the temperature in mice, decrease the content of LPO in liver of the hypercholesteremia rats, and has an antidiuretic effect; Hierodula patellifera can increase the index of testis and thymus gland, raise the temperature in mice, and decrease the content of LPO in liver of the hypercholesteremia rats. The LD-50 of the three species of

 

Kiryanova, E. S. ; 1989 ; Two new species of the nematode genus Chordodes from praying mantids.

Source : Parazitologiia ; 0031-1847 ; 23: 4, 358-362.

abstract: Chordodes curvicillatus sp. nov. (one female) from a praying mantis (Mantidae) found in Sumatra, Indonesia, and C. ferganensis sp. nov. (one female) from a praying mantis collected near Fergana, Uzbek SSR (USSR), are described. C. curvicillatus is differentiated from all other species of the genus, including C. ferganensis, by the abundance of dark, paired areolae (up to 60-80 /mm surface) consisting of type II but occasionally also type III scattered between other areolar groups. C. ferganensis is nearest in the shape and distribution of areolae to C. anthophorus, C. devius and C. aquaeductus, but differs from these 3 by possessing areolae with long (up to 175 micro m) processes; such areolae are

 

Klass K. D. ; 1997 ; The external male genitalia and the phylogeny of Blattaria and Mantodea.

Source : Bonner Zoologische Monographien ; 0302-671X ; 0(42):1-341

abstract: The external male genitalia of Blattaria and Mantodea (phallomeres, phallomere complex) are highly complicated structures, which are always extremely asymmetrical. They are provided with many sclerites and muscles. Their cuticular surface is complexly folded. and there are many distinct in- and evaginations (the formative elements), which may have the shape of spines, lobes, bulges, pouches, apodemes, tendons, etc.. The knowledge of phallomere morphology is extremely incomplete, and the potential for phylogenetic research inherent in these structures has so far hardly been used. In 4 species of Mantodea and 10 species of Blattaria the sclerites, muscles, and formative elements of the phallomere complex and some other parts of the male postabdomen have been investigated in detail. Most of the subgroups of Blattaria (subfamilies in the system of McKittrick 1964) and four families of Mantodea (of the system of Beier 1968) are represented in this sample. Certain parts of the phallomeres are described for some further species of Blattaria. A detailed homology hypothesis is presented for the sclerites, muscles, and formative elements of the phallomeres, which includes the homologies between Blattaria and Mantodea. The common ground-plan of Blattaria and Mantodea has been reconstructed. Phallomere characters have been evaluated in terms of phytogeny. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis is roughly as follows: In Mantodea, the basal dichotomy is between Mantoididae and the other families; the second one is between Chaeteessidae and the remaining families. In Blattaria, the basal dichotomy is between Blattinae + Potyzosteriinae and the remainder. These remaining Blattaria can be divided into three groups: The first consists of Tryonicinae only. The second contains Cryptocercidae as well as Lamproblattinae and Potyphaginae, the two latter taxa being especially closely related. The third group comprises Blattellidae and Blaberidae. Blattellidae are clearly paraphyletic, with Blaberidae as a rather subordinate subgroup. The first offshoot within Blattellidae (+ Blaberidae) are the Anaplectinae. The subsequent offshoots are various species of Plectopterinae, which is a paraphyletic taxon, too. Blaberidae, Nyctiborinae, Blattellinae and Ectobiinae together form a holophyletic group. Nyctiborinae and Blaberidae are possibly sister-groups. Some other important results are: (1) The asymmetry of the phallomere complex is homologous in Blattaria and Mantodea, and the morphology of each side is quite similar in the two groups. In Mantodea the hook-process hla (sclerite L3 of McKittrick 1964) is missing; this might be the consequence of a derived copulation procedure. (2) In the common ground-plan of Blattaria and Mantodea asymmetry is already as extreme as in the extant species. The opinion of Mizukubo & Hirashima (1987) that the stem-species of Blattaria still had symmetrical phallomeres is refuted. (3) The ground-plan morphology is most extensively retained in the Mantodea Mantoididae (left side) and Chaeteessidae (right side). In Blattaria, Blattinae have retained many ground-plan features, but in some other phallomere characters they are rather derived. The phallomeres of Cryptocercidae are not close to the Blattarian ground-plan as it is the opinion of McKittrick (1964). (4) The hypothesis of Bohn (1987) that the side-reversed similarities of the phallomeres of Blaberidae on the one hand and of some subgroups of Blattellidae on the other are due to homology is highly supported. They are not due to parallel evolution as it is the view of Mizukubo & Hirashima (1987). (5) Homologies between the left and the right side

 

Klass K. D. ; 1997 ; The ovipositor of Dictyoptera (Insecta): homology and ground-plan of the main elements.

Source : Zoologischer Anzeiger. ; 0044-5231 ; 236: 2/3, 69-101.

abstract: The morphology of the ovipositor of Mastotermes darwiniensis (Isoptera) and some Blattaria (Cryptocercus punctulatus, Periplaneta americana, Eurycotis floridana, Lamproblatta albipalpus, Polyphaga aegyptiaca, Supella longipalpa) and Mantodea (Sphodromantis sp., Mantis religiosa) was reinvestigated. Homology relations within Dictyoptera and between these and other ectognathan taxa (Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Notoptera, Ensifera) are discussed. The sternal or coxal origin of dictyopteran ovipositor elements is analysed - based on the interpretation of the basal ectognathan morphology according to C.G.E. Scudder, J. Bitsch and A. Rousset. Outgroup comparisons with other Ectognatha were used to polarise problematic characters within Dictyoptera and to reconstruct the ground-plan of the order. Synapomorphies of dictyopteran subgroups were determined. The morphological results, the interpretation of many ovipositor sclerotizations and muscles, assumptions on homology relations, character polarities, and ground-plan morphology, and also the resulting implications on dictyopteran phylogeny, differ greatly from previous workers (e.g.

 

Klass K. D. ; 1998 ; The proventriculus of the Dicondylia, with comments on evolution and phylogeny in Dictyoptera and Odonata (Insecta).

Source : Zoologischer Anzeiger. ; 0044-5231 ; 237: 1, 15-42

abstract: Striking similarities in the proventriculi (gizzards) of Lepismatidae (Zygentoma), Blattinae (Dictyoptera), and nymphal Corduliidae (Odonata) permit the reconstruction of the ground-plan of Dicondylia: 6 major plicae, each with a large denticle-bearing sclerite anteriorly and a smaller pulvillus posteriorly, are present in a hexaradial arrangement. Hexaradial symmetry is overlain by a distinct bilateral symmetry established by an individual differentiation of the single plicae and their sclerites, denticles, and pulvilli: 2 opposite plicae in the plane of symmetry are unpaired, 4 plicae are in 2 pairs. Within Odonata, Corduliidae are closest to the ground-plan, but the unpaired plicae are reduced. In the derived condition the proventriculus of Odonata has a tetraradial symmetry, with the bilateral symmetry lost. Within Dictyoptera, Blattinae are closest to the ground-plan, but the bilateral symmetry has become weaker. The proventriculus of Isoptera is not primitive within Dictyoptera, as previously thought, but highly derived. Many prior arguments for the exclusion of Isoptera from Blattaria are thus invalid. Similarities between Isoptera and certain Blattaria, mainly Cryptocercidae, may be synapomorphies, indicating a subgroup status of Isoptera within Blattaria. For the proventriculi of Blattaria and Mantodea, which differ greatly in appearance, a detailed hypothesis of homology is presented. This study also gives insights into the evolution of symmetry relations and reveals some unusual aspects of serial homology. Many homoplasies were found in the evolution of the proventriculus of Dictyoptera and Odonata.

 

Köck, A., ; 1993 ; Visual prey discrimination in monocular and binocular praying mantis Tenodera sinensis durin postembryonic development

Source : Journal of Insect Physiology ; 0022-1910 ; 39: 485 491

abstract: In Tenodera sinensis, optomorphometric studies showed that some components of binocular vision, such as the fovea and the visual field, underwent postnatal development. Unilaterally blinded insects of all ages showed shorter capture distances of prey (either Drosophila melanogaster or Musca domestica) and so were much less efficient in capturing prey than binocular insects. Young insects, however, were able to compensate for unilateral blinding within a few days; older and adult insects did not have this capability. The results suggested that during a postnatal critical period, the visually guided capture mechanism was not 'hard wired' and so could adapt to changes in stimuli, permitting T.

 

Koehler G. ; 1984 ; Contributions to the knowledge of the entomological fauna of bulgaria orthoptera.

Source : Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte ; 0232-5535 ; 28 (6) : 259-265

abstract: Evidence concerning the findings of 37 species of the Orthoptera (Tettigonioidea Acridoidea, Grylloidea and Mantodea) is given. Three localities are characterized zoogeographically and ecologically on the basis of the species

 

Kopaneva L M. ; 1981 ; Orthopteroid insects (Blattoptera, Mantoptera, Orthoptera, Dermaptera) of the Dnieper River and its tributaries.

Source : Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie ; 0367-1445 ; 60: 2, 290-301

abstract: The orthopteroid fauna of the River Dnieper and its tributaries in the USSR was studied between 1972 and 1977, by means of collections in the floodplains up to 200 m from the water. Of the 70 species found, 4 were Blattodea, 1 Mantodea, 17 Tettigonioidea, 8 Grylloidea, 1 Tridactyloidea, 37 Acridoidea and 3 Dermaptera. The species are listed together with data on their abundance in various habitats and the damage caused by them. Mean values of the biomass and energetics of the insects were calculated for the various geographical zones. Dry, raised areas with few plants, forest plantations and fallow plots close to cultivated land were natural habitats for pests of such genera as

 

Kopaneva L M. ; 1972 ; Orthoptera and related insects in the aksu-dzhabagly state reservation in the western Tien- Shan USSR.

Source : Entomological Review (English Translation of ; ; 51 (4) : 459-463

abstract: Entomologicheskoye Obozreniye)

 

Kral, K. ; 1998 ; Side-to-side head movements to obtain motion depth cues: a short review of research on the praying mantis.

Source : Behavioural Processes ; 0376-6357 ; 43: 1, 71-77

abstract: In the case of a visual field comprised of stationary objects, retinal image motion and motion parallax initiated by the observer can be used to determine the absolute and relative distance of objects. The principle is simple: when the observer moves, the retinal images of objects close to the eye are displaced more quickly, and through a larger angle, than are the retinal images of more distant objects. It is remarkable that not only in humans, but throughout the animal kingdom, from primates down to insects, retinal image motion and motion parallax generated with the aid of head movements is used as a means of distance estimation. In the case of praying mantids (Tenodera sinensis) translatory side-to-side movements of the head in a horizontal plane are performed to determine the jump distance to stationary objects. The relevant parameter for determining the distance to the object is the speed of retinal image motion. The motion of the head must, however, also be monitored. This requires a multisensory regulatory circuit. Motion parallax information seems to be mediated by a movement-detecting neuronal mechanism which is sensitive

 

Kral, K. ; 1997 ; Motion parallax as a source of distance information in Locusts and mantids.

Source : Journal of Insect Behavior ; 0892-7553 ; 10(1): 145-163

abstract: This review article is devoted to results on distance measurement in locusts (e.g., Wallace, 1959; Collett, 1978; Sobel, 1990) and mantids. Before locusts or mantids jump toward a stationary object, they perform characteristic pendulum movements with the head or body, called peering movements, in the direction of the object. The fact that the animals over- or underestimate the distance to the object when the object is moved with or against the peering movement, and so perform jumps that are too long or short, would seem to indicate that motion parallax is used in this distance measurement. The behavior of the peering parameters with different object distances also indicates that not only

 

Kramer K J. ; 1973 ; Oothecal proteins of the oriental praying mantid Tenodera sinensis.

Source : Insect Biochemistry ; 0020-1790 ; 3 (11) : 297-302

Kramer K J. ; 1989 ; Solid state C nuclear magnetic resonance and chemical analyses of insect noncuticular sclerotized support structures: mantid oothecae and cocoon silks.

Source : Insect Biochemistry ; 0020-1790 ; 19: 1, 69-77

abstract: Sclerotized oothecae from 2 species of praying mantids, including Tenodera sinensis [T. aridifolia sinensis] and cocoon silks from the moths Antheraea mylitta, A. polyphemus, Hyalophora cecropia, Bombyx mori, Plodia interpunctella and Ephestia cautella were subjected to solid state C nuclear magnetic resonance and chemical analysis. The oothecae were composed of protein (83% of the wet wt), water (7-8%), diphenolic compounds (6%) and inorganic salts (2-3%). The major diphenols extracted in cold dilute acid were N-acylated derivatives of dopamine and norepinephrine, including N-malonyldopamine, N- acetyldopamine and N-acetylnorepinephrine. The acid- extractable diphenols accounted for less than 1% of the total diphenols estimated by solid state NMR analysis, indicating that nearly all of the diphenols in mantid egg cases were involved in covalent cross-links or adducts with oothecal proteins. The silks were lower than the oothecae in diphenolic compounds (0.1-1%), slightly higher in protein (88-90%) and about the same in water (7-8%) and inorganic salt content (3-4%). A higher proportion of the total diphenols was acid extractable from the silk (4-56%) than from the oothecaea, and they included 3,4- dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4- dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3,4- dihydroxybenzaldehyde and N-acetylnorepinephrine. Subsequent metabolism of diphenols in these structures probably involved oxidation to quinonoid derivatives, followed by formation of covalent bonds between diphenol ring

 

Kristensen N P. ; 1995 ; Forty years' insect phylogenetic systematics: HENNIG's "Kritische Bemerkungen..." and subsequent developments.

Source : Zoologische Beitraege ; 0044-5150 ; 36 (1) : 83-124

abstract: The status of insect phylogenetic systematics is reviewed with emphasis on advances since W. Hennig's "Kritische Bemerkungen zum phylogenetischen System der Insekten" (1953). The monophyly of the 'Diplura' is now being questioned, and so is the monophyly of the entire 'Entognatha'. The 'Zygentoma' most likely are not a monophylum. The question of the basic dichotomy within the winged insects is still considered open. Interrelationships between the lower neopteran orders (inclusive of the Zoraptera) are considered wholly unclarified; recent attempts by Kukalova- Peck and coworkers to classify these orders are not accepted. Thorne & Carpenter's (1992) analysis of the cockroach + mantid + termite complex is discussed, and the evidence for a cockroach + mantid monophylum is shown not to be robust. The interrelationship between the three 'hemipteroid' orders Psocodea, Hemiptera and Thysanoptera is also considered unresolved, and it is a topical question whether the Hemiptera-Auchenorrhyncha are paraphyletic with respect to the Heteroptera. The monophyly of the Endopterygota (= Holometabola) is considered firmly established, except that the evidence for including the Strepsiptera in this taxon is ambiguous. Recent work on the strepsipteran wing structure has led to rejection of a suite of putative Coleoptera + Strepsiptera synapomorphies. A hypothesis of a Strepsiptera + Diptera monophylum has newly been proposed on the basis of molecular data and explained in terms of homeotic mutations; some difficulties in this hypothesis are pointed out. A basal dichotomy of the Endopterygota in a Coleoptera + 'Neuropteria' assemblage and a Hymenoptera + 'Mecopteria' assemblage is a weakly supported working hypothesis. The monophyly of the Megaloptera has recently been challenged, but is tentatively upheld. Molecular data support that the Mecoptera (inclusive of Nannomecoptera) + Siphonaptera are a monophylum, but the

 

Kruseman, G. ; 1979 ; De kakkerlakken en bidsprinkhanen - Dictyoptera - uit de landen van de Benelux

Source : Wetenschappelijke Mededelingen van de Koninklijke ; ; No. 133, 2-28

abstract: Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging. Information is presented on the Dictyoptera that occur in the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg; cockroaches are recorded from all 3 countries. Notes are given on the anatomy and morphology of cockroaches, together with a list of the species occurring in the Netherlands, with indications of whether they are native to that country or have spread from other areas, whether they are found in houses or only in the field, or whether they have been found only in imported merchandise or on board ship. A key to species is provided. The biology of the more important species is

 

Kumar, R. ; 0 ; On some substances produced by the colleterial glands of certain orthopteroid insects.

Source : Annals of the Entomological Society of America ; 0013-8746 ; 67 (5) : 753-755

Kumar, R. ; 1973 ; The biology of some Ghanaian mantids (Dictyoptera:Mantodea)

Source : Bull. Inst. Fond. Afr. Noire (Ser. A) Sciences Naturelles ; 0018-9634 ; 35 (3) : 551 578

Kunkel J G. ; 1974 ; Larval specific serum protein in the order dictyoptera part 1 immunologic characterization in larval blattella-germanica and cross reaction throughout the order.

Source : Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology - B: ; 0305-0491 ; 47 (3) : 697-710.

abstract: Comparative Biochemistry

 

La Greca M. ; 1997 ; A new species of Pseudacanthops Saussure 1870 from Bolivia (Insecta Mantodea).

Source : Tropical Zoology ; 0394-6975 ; 10(1):49-55

abstract: The authors describe a new species of Pseudacanthops Saussure 1870 (P. lobipes n. sp.) from Bolivia characterized by the presence of a lobe at the centre of the medial and posterior tibiae. It appears related to P. spinulosa Saussure 1870, from which it differs in the shape of vertex fastigium, in the stronger pronotum metazone, in the shape of its

 

Land, M. F. ; 1992 ; Visual tracking and pursuit: humans and arthropods compared.

Source : Journal of Insect Physiology ; 0022-1910 ; 38: 12, 939-951

abstract: The control systems that different arthropods (praying mantids [Mantidae], hoverflies [Syrphidae] and the water-flea Polyphemus) use for visual tracking and pursuit of prey or conspecifics were compared with those of humans. The different control systems were also simulated using computers and their performances compared. The general conclusions were: at low speeds or frequencies, continuous (smooth) tracking gave the best performance since it provided a good match to both the position and velocity of the target (in humans and hoverflies); the addition of velocity feedback to the position signal improved the performance of smooth systems, especially at higher frequencies (in humans); at higher frequencies, position tracking was greatly improved by a switch to a sampled (saccadic) system (in humans and hoverflies), especially when velocity as well as position errors were taken into account (in Mantidae); mixed systems in which position is dealt with by a saccadic system and velocity by a smooth system gave the best overall results (in humans and Mantidae in low contrast environments); and in contrast to the others, the Polyphemus eye movement control system measured neither the position nor the velocity of the target, the direction and duration

 

Lawrence, S.E. ; 1992 ; Sexual cannibalism in the praying mantid, Mantis religiosa : a field study

Source : Anim. Behav. ; 0003-3472 ; 43: 569 583

abstract: The frequency of sexual cannibalism, mating behaviour and general biology of a wild population of the mantid, Mantis religiosa, were examined. Mating behaviour of wild mantids was similar to that of captive individuals: Males were always 'cautious' towards females and performed no display in their precopula approach. Sexual cannibalism occurred in 31% of matings observed in the wild. Growth (weight gain/age) was restricted in wild females. Males were attracted more to heavier females which oviposited sooner after mating. The sex ratio became progressively female biased as the breeding season progressed and it is suggested that sexual cannibalism may have contributed to this

 

Lea, J.Y. ; 1977 ; Saccadic head movements in mantids

Source : Journal of Comparative Physiology. A Sensory Neural ; 0340-7594 ; 114 (1) : 115 128

abstract: and Behavorial Physiology

 

Leitinger G. ; 1999 ; Serotonin-immunoreactive neurones in the visual system of the praying mantis: an immunohistochemical, confocal laser scanning and electron microscopic study.

Source : Brain Research ; 0006-8993 ; 823(1-2):11-23

abstract: The distribution, number, and morphology of serotonin-immunoreactive (5-HTi) neurones in the optic lobe of the praying mantis Tenodera sinensis were studied using conventional microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Five or six 5-HTi neurones connect the lobula complex with the medulla, and at least 50 5-HTi neurones appear to be confined to the medulla. In addition, a few large 5-HTi processes from the protocerebrum supply the lobula complex, and two large 5-HTi processes from the protocerebrum ramify in the medulla and lamina, where they show wide field arborisations. In order to provide a basis for understanding the action of serotonin in the lamina, the ultrastructure of its 5-HTi terminals was examined by conventional and immunohistochemical electron microscopy. The 5-HTi profiles were filled with dense core vesicles and made synapses. Output synapses from 5-HTi profiles outnumbered inputs by about 3 to 1. The terminals of the 5-HTi neurones were in close contact with cells of various types, including large monopolar cells, but close apposition to photoreceptor terminals was rare, and no synapses were

 

Li XiaoTong ; 1997 ; Tension-sensitive kinetochore phosphorylation and the chromosome distribution checkpoint in praying mantid spermatocytes.

Source : Journal of Cell Science ; 0021-9533 ; 110: 5, 537-545.

abstract: Micromanipulation was combined with immunostaining for phosphoproteins to study the effect of tension on kinetochore phosphorylation in spermatocytes of Tenodera aridifolia sinensis [Tenodera sinensis]. Earlier observations on mammalian cells and grasshopper spermatocytes that misattached chromosomes have phosphorylated kinetochore proteins were confirmed. Experiments in grasshopper spermatocytes showing that tension alters kinetochore chemistry were also confirmed: tension from a micromanipulation needle caused kinetochore protein dephosphorylation, and relaxation of tension caused kinetochore protein rephosphorylation. Mantid cells are the only ones in which an effect of tension on the checkpoint has been directly demonstrated; it is shown that tension affects kinetochore phosphorylation in these same cells. In grasshoppers, an unpaired sex chromosome is normal, its kinetochore is under- phosphorylated, and the checkpoint is not activated. In mantids, the opposite is true: an unpaired sex chromosome is abnormal, its kinetochore is phosphorylated and, as predicted, the checkpoint is activated. It is concluded that tension-

 

Li, L. F. ; 1985 ; A preliminary study of insect-control in cotton fields using Paratenodera sinensis Saussure.

Source : Insect Knowledge ; 0452-8255 ; 22: 5, 208-209

abstract: The effectiveness of the mantid Paratenodera sinensis [Tenodera aridifolia sinensis] to control the cotton aphid [Aphis gossypii] was investigated in field studies in Shanxi, China, in 1978. Over 3000 egg pouches of T. a. sinensis were collected and stored at 15 and 70 deg C. After 50 days, 97.5-100% of the egg pouches had hatched with 63-210 nymphs/egg pouch (a mean of 151). In fields in which T. a. sinensis egg pouches and nymphs were released in May, aphids were reduced to 7-9/100 plants compared with 12-17/100 plants in the control. The mantid also preyed on nymphs of the acridid Atractomorpha sp. The torymid Podagrion sinense parasitized 15-32% of the egg pouches of T.

 

Liebenberg, H ; 1991 ; An unexpected sex chrosome mechanism in a South African mantid Polyspilota aeruginosa

Source : Caryologia ; 0008-7114 ; 44: 195-200.

abstract: A male Polyspilota aeriginosa from the Eastern Transvaal lowveld, was studied cytogenetically. A chromosome number of 2n .male. = 28 (X1X2Y1Y2) was found to occur. This unique sex chromosome mechanism has not been reported previously in the Mantidae. The chromosome number of 2n = 28 was also unexpected since almost all other members of the subfamily Mantinae show 2n .male. = 27 (X1X2Y). This makes it very difficult to explain the origin of the sex chromosome mechanism of this individual. Some possible mechanisms are discussed

 

Liebrich W. ; 1995 ; Isolation and Primary Structures of Neuropeptides of the AKH-RPCH Family From Various Termite Species.

Source : Peptides (Tarrytown) ; 0196-9781 ; 16 (4) : 559-564

abstract: We have isolated neuropeptides of the AKH/RPCH family from extracts of whole heads of four termite species (Mastotermes darwiniensis, Microhodotermes viator, Hodotermes mossambicus, and Trinervitermes trinervoides) using the effect of mobilizing lipids in Locusta migratoria for bioassay. Isolation was essentially achieved by two steps of reversed-phase chromatography (on phenyl-support followed by C-18). The peptides were identified by Edman degradation after deblocking with oxoprolyl peptidase. Each termite species contained only one AKH/RPCH family member. The primary structure in M. darwiniensis and T. trinervoides is pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH-2, a peptide previously found mainly in cockroaches and code named Pea-CAH-1. The peptide from M. viator has the primary sequence pGlu-Ile-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH-2; it is a novel member of the family and is code-named Miv- CC (Microhodotermes viator corpus cardiacum peptide). Phylogenetic relations between the known cockroach and mantid AKH/RPCH octapeptides and the termite peptides from this study could be revealed employing the parsimony method. Based on a computer analysis, using PAUP 3.1.1., we concluded that termites are plesiomorphic with regard

 

Linné Caroli ; 1758 ; Systema Naturae (regnum Animale )10 th edition

Source : Lispsiae ; ; 425 - 427

abstract: ouvrage de référence initial de la systématique animale

 

Liske, E. ; 1982 ; Proprioceptive control of head position and head movement in the praying mantis.

Source : Naturwissenschaften ; 0028-1042 ; 69: 9, 452-453

abstract: The neuronal mechanisms underlying the proprioceptive modulation of head movements of Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Sauss., which is important in the control of prey capture behaviour in this species, are described on the basis of a laboratory study carried out in the USA using extracellular recording techniques. Notes 1 fig.

 

Liske, E. ; 1989 ; Neck hair plate sensilla of the praying mantis: centra projections of the afferent neurones and their physiological response to imposed head movement in the yaw plane

Source : Journal of Insect Physiology ; 0022-1910 ; 35: 677 687

abstract: In Mantidae, the neck hair plates are covered with small socketed hairs. Exterior mophological studies (scanning electron microscopy) and transmission electron micrographs of sections through the whole sensory nerve branch (mainly of Tenodera aridifolia sinensis and Sphodromantis lineola) showed that proprioceptive information about head displacement was transmitted by a large number of sensory fibres from the neck region. Approximately 400-450 sensilla were grouped on the 2 prominent hair plates located on each side of the neck. The primary afferents identified by cobalt 'backfills' projected into the prothoracic ganglion with a complex arborization pattern. Neck hair plate afferents were recorded extracellularly (with bipolar hook electrodes) from whole sensory nerves during directional, passive head displacements in the yaw (horizontal) plant. Yaw movements applied to the head elicited impulse discharges patterns with a directional sensitivity in the neck hair plate sensilla. The strength of these discharges depended linearly on the size of the given angle through which the head was turned. The results indicated that the neck hair plates sensilla were able to register information about dynamic and static head position relative to

 

Liske, E. ; 1984 ; Saccadic head movements of the prayin mantis, with particular reference to visual and proprioceptiv information Physiol Ent

Source : Physiological Entomology ; 0307-6962 ; 9 (1) : 29 38

abstract: Horizontal head movements of S. lineola Burm were recorded continuously. They responded to the presence of a live blowfly prey in the antero-lateral visual field with a rapid saccadic head movement. The angular movement of a fixation saccade was correlated positively to the displacement of the prey from the prothoracic midline. Saccade magnitude and velocity are related. After the stimulus moved out of the visual field, the mantis made a 2nd saccade head movement, a return saccade towards the body midline. Return saccades were observed in which the head overshot or undershot the body midline, as well as saccades which returned the head exactly to its initial position. In 92% of trials with intact mantids, the return movement succeeded eventually in rotating the head back to its initial position; after removal of the neck hair plates this occurred in only 47% of trials. There is a consistent relation between saccade extent and velocity. Velocities of return saccades were slower than those of fixation saccades.

 

Liu, Z. ; 1982 ; Preliminary studies on Hierodula patellifera Serville.

Source : Kunchong Zhishi ; ; 19: 4, 20-22

abstract: The mantids Hierodula patellifera (Serv.) is an important predator of various agricultural and forest pests in China. Observations on its biology in Qinzhou, Guangxi, China in 1978-80 showed that it had 1 generation a year and that 98% of the population survived the winter (either in the egg case or as adults). The egg stage averaged 195 days and the nymphal stage lasted 129-259 days; adults survived for an average of 65.5 days. The release of the mantid in forests for the control of Dendrolimus afforded good control. Females consumed an average of 5 larvae/day each.

 

Lombardo, L. ; 1995 ; Parahestiasula obscura, gen.nov., spec.nov. from Nepal (Insecta, mantodea,

Source : Spixiana (München) ; 0341-8391 ; 18(1): 11 14

abstract: Parahestiasula obscura, a new species of a new genus belonging to the family Hymenopodidae is described. It is characterized by the presence of three strong processes on the fastigium of the vertex and has markedly lobed median

 

Lombardo, L. ; 1991 ; Remarks on the genus severinia finot 1902 and a description of two new genera of oxyothespinae insecta mantodea.

Source : Tropical Zoology ; 0394-6975 ; 4 (2) : 203-208

abstract: A resolution of the confusion surrounding the genus Severinia Finot 1902 is proposed. It is suggested that the males, presently attributed to Severinia lemoroi (Finot 1902), be transferred to the new genus, PARASEVERINIA, and that the genus Amblythespis Chopard 1943 be considered a synonym of Severinia. In addition, a description is provided of a new genus SOMALITHESPIS (Oxyothespini), characterised by the presence of a pre-apical lobe on the mid femurs, a character found for the first time among the tribe of Oxyothespini.

 

Lombardo, L. ; 1991 ; Mantodei del Museo Civico di storia Naturale di Milano

Source : Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del ; 0037-8844 ; 132 (26) : 378-380.

abstract: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano The Author examines a small but interesting collection of Mantodea. This collection constitued by 13 specimens, includes one species new for the Birbania fauna (Phyllothelys westwoodi (W. Mason)).

 

Lombardo, L. ; 1993 ; Studies on the Mantodea of Nepal (Insecta).

Source : Spixiana (München) ; 0341-8391 ; 16 (3): 193-206.

abstract: The author examines a rich collection of Mantodea from Nepal, belonging to the Zoologische Staatssammlung Munchen. 20 species were identified, among which only 2 are known in the fauna of this region: almost all of them are new for the region of Nepal and Sceptuchus baehri, spec. nov., Acromantis elegans, spec. nov. and Memantis

 

Lombardo, L. ; 1995 ; A review of the genus Popa Stal 1856 (Insecta Mantodea)

Source : Tropical Zoology ; 0394-6975 ; 8(2): 257 267

abstract: It is suggested that Mantis undata Fabricius 1793 does not belong to the genus Popa Stal 1856 as believed until now, but to the Indian genus Ambivia Stal 1877 (n. comb.). The systematic position of the species of Popa is re-examined and a single species, Popa spurca Stal 1856 (= P. undata auct. nec Fabricius) is recognised. The species is differentiated into two subspecies, one being Popa spurca spurca Stal 1856 (= P. stuhlmanni Rehn 1914, P. batesi Sauss. & Zehnt. 1895) (n. syn.) widespread throughout all Africa south of the Sahara, except in the east which is

 

Londei T . ; 1993 ; A submediterranean population of Empusa pennata (Thunberg) (Mantodea Empusidae).

Source : Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del ; 0037-8844 ; 133 (8): 97-100.

abstract: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano E. pennata has been found at 44 degree 46'N. 9 degree 23'E, 260-290 m above sea level, in a limited area where the winter is fairly cold but the humidity is low in the air throughout the year, though the ground is never entirely dry. Data from wild and captive subjects does not indicate any difference from the species characters in the literature, with possible exception as concerns the way of overwintering because, here, no individual was found in December-January. No neighbouring area appears to be inhabited by this species in spite of some places seeming suitable. Hirundo daurica, a Mediterranean swallow now expanding northwards, nested just in the area of interest and only recently. Therefore, E. pennata may also have appeared recently in this area. The recent series of dry winters may have

 

Maldonado, Hector ; 1974 ; How mantids gai insight into the new maximum catching distance after each ecdysis

Source : Journal of Insect Physiology ; 0022-1910 ; 20 (3) : 591 603

Maldonado, Hector ; 1976 ; Amino-acid and protein metabolism in the nervous system of the praying mantid.

Source : Journal of Insect Physiology ; 0022-1910 ; 22 (5) : 649-660

Maldonado, Hector ; 1975 ; Mnemonic factors in a learning process of praying mantids.

Source : Journal of Insect Physiology ; 0022-1910 ; 21 (5) :1101-1110

Maldonado, Hector ; 1976 ; Leucine incorporation in the ganglia of praying mantids during a learning process.

Source : Journal of Insect Physiology ; 0022-1910 ; 22 (6) : 45-849

Manosa S. ; 1992 ; seasonal and sexual variation in the diet of the common buzzard in Norteastern Spain

Source : Journal of Raptor Research. ; 0892-1016 ; 26 (4): 235-238

abstract: We examined the diet of Common Buzzards (Buteo buteo) from a Mediterranean area (Catalonia, NE Spain), by analyzing prey remains and pellets found in the nest, and stomach contents. The diet was seasonal. Relatively large items, such as young rabbits and Ocellated Lizards (Lacerta lepida), predominated in the breeding season, orthopterans and mantodeans in autumn and insects, rodents and soricidans in winter. Males presented an empty stomach more often then females, but only small differences were found in the diet of males and females.

 

Marshall, Judith Anne ; 1975 ; A catalog of the primary types of Mantodea Dictyoptera in the British Museum Natural

Source : Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) ; 0524-6431 ; 31 (8) : 307-329

abstract: espèces traité

 

Mathis, U., ; 1992 ; Functional binocula vision in not dependent on visual experience in the praying mantis

Source : Visual Neuroscience ; 0952-5238 ; 9: 199 203

abstract: In vertebrates, it has been shown that binocular visual experience is necessary to develop normal spatial vision. We have investigated whether this is also true for an invertebrate, the praying mantis. The praying mantis is a predatory insect in which prey localization involves the use of binocular disparities. We raised mantids which had one eye occluded throughout development and tested monocular visual fixation and binocular distance estimation in the adult animals. The results revealed that both fixation and prey catching behavior were normally functional in the monocularly reared animals. Thus we conclude that, in mantids, binocular vision is based on a fixed node of

 

Matsura, T, ; 1983 ; Estimation of prey consumption of mantid, Paratenodera angustipennis (S ) in a natural

Source : Researches on Population Ecology (Kyoto) ; 0034-5466 ; 25: 298 308

abstract: Using a relationship between prey consumption and growth rate, field prey consumption of adults of P. angustipennis (S.) in a paddy field was estimated. Since a great number of grasshoppers (Oxya japonica) lived in the research area and the mantids had frequently eaten O. japonica, it was assumed that they consumed only O. japonica. It was estimated that average prey consumptions for 6 days were 406 mg for the females and 23 mg for the males. Each female probably captured 1 grasshopper, on average, every few days. By comparing this actual feeding level of P. angustipennis with those of other predacious arthropods, characteristics of P. angustipennis as a predator were

 

Matsura, T, ; 1983 ; Influences of prey density on fecundity in a mantis, Paratenodera angustipennis (S )

Source : Oecologia (Berlin)/=Oecologia (Heidelberg) ; 0029-8549/0013-8797 ; 56: 306 312

abstract: In order to clarify the effects of prey density on fecundity in predacious insects, relationships between prey density (adults of Lucilia sericata (Mg.) (Phaenicia sericata)) and number of eggs, preoviposition period and egg size were examined in the laboratory in Japan using adult females of the mantid Tenodera angustipennis Sauss. (Paratenodera angustipennis). From the results, it was concluded that the mantids increased their fecundity by repeatedly depositing large oothecae at short intervals when prey density was high; therefore, prey density during the adult stage was an important factor influencing the rate of increase of a population of T. angustipennis. Notes 11 fig.

 

Matsura, T, ; 1975 ; Ecological studies of mantid, Paratenodera angustipennis De Saussure I Evaluation of th feeding condition in natural habitats

Source : Researches on Population Ecology (Kyoto) ; 0034-5466 ; 17 (1) : 64 76

abstract: From laboratory investigations in which adults of Drosophila melanogaster Mg. and Musca domestica L. were provided as prey for nymphs and adults of Tenodera angustipennis Sauss. ( Paratenodera angustipennis), the body length of the adult is described as a linear function of the prey consumption during the later nymphal period. The period of nymphal development is hyperbolically related to the prey consumed. The increment of body weight in adult females is linearly related to prey consumption during adult life, but in males less prey is consumed and the increment is small. The fecundity of the female has a positive correlation with prey consumption in the nymphal stage, and hence with body size. In September 1973, adult mantids were collected in 3 habitats (a field of soy bean planted in a row across a crowded stand of Solidago altissima, a sparse stand of S. altissima, and farm hedgerows of tea plant) in Japan, and it was concluded from measurements of the adults in relation to the formulae adduced in the laboratory that the prey density differed in the different habitats. There were corresponding differences in the hunger levels of the mantids, as indicated by their predation on house-flies in the laboratory. There was no evidence from comparisons of field-collected adults and data on the critical range at which nymphal development was retarded and egg-formation inhibited that there was any severe shortage of prey in the field.

 

Matsura, T, ; 1981 ; Responses to starvation in a mantis, Paratenoder angustipennis (S )

Source : Oecologia (Berlin)/=Oecologia (Heidelberg) ; 0029-8549/0013-8797 ; 50: 291 295

abstract: I tested the importance of predation versus competition in two congeneric sympatric species of mantids, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Saussure) and T. angustipennis (Saussure), during the late portion of the juvenile stage of their life cycle. Tenodera angustipennis abundance was reduced through predation by the larger T. a. sinensis, but no evidence of competition for resources was demonstrated for either species. Tenodera a. sinensis gained more body mass in the presence of T. angustipennis indicating that the benefit of consuming smaller predators may outweigh the

 

Maxwell, Michael .R. ; 1998 ; Range expansion of an introduced mantids Iris oratoria and niche overlap with native mantids Stagmomantis limbata (Mantodea , Mantidae)

Source : Annals of the Entomological Society of America ; 0013-8746 ; 91(4) :422 429

Maxwell, Michael .R. ; 1998 ; Lifetime mating opportunities and male mating behaviour in sexually cannibalistic

Source : Anim. Behav. ; 0003-3472 ; 55 : 1011 1028

Maxwell, Michael .R. ; 1999 ; The risk of cannibalism and male mating behaviour in the Mediterranean praying mantid,

Source : Behaviour (Oxford) ; 0005-7959 ; 136: 2, 205-219

abstract: I. oratoria were collected from Davis, California (USA). The risk of cannibalism was manipulated by placing males in different positions at the start of a mating trial: frontal, where the males faced the females' fronts (high risk of cannibalism), or rear, where the males were behind the females, facing their posteriors (lower risk). Investigations were performed into whether the male attempted to mount the female, the direction of the first mount attempt and the time taken to attempt to mount. Initial position did not have a significant effect on whether males attempted to mount females. Males showed a preference for non-frontal mount attempts, and males placed frontally were less likely to mount from their initial direction than were males placed at the rear. Males placed at the rear attempted to mount sooner than males placed frontally, especially if males could approach and mount while remaining behind females. While males approached the females, movements by both sexes resulted in changes in how males faced females, which might explain why the males' initial position did not strongly predict attacks by females. Attacks by females did not result in cannibalism and might reflect the females' state of sexual receptivity, or female choice. Female phenotype and the time of year influenced male behaviour. Males were more likely to attempt to mount females of high feeding condition. These results are more compatible with male choice for fecund females than with male choice for non-cannibalistic females. Males became less likely to attempt mounts as the year progressed, possibly as a result

 

Maxwell, Michael .R. ; 1998 ; Seasonal adult sex ratio shift in the praying mantids Iris oratoria (Mantodea: Mantidae)

Source : Environmental Entomology ; 0046-225X ; 27 (2) : 118 123

Mesnier Sabin M. ; 1974 ; Study on female genital apparatus and its innervation in Sphodromantis lineola pinguis dictyoptera mantidae.

Source : Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France ; ; 99 (4) : 621-636

Messner, B. ; 1991 ; Die Peroxidase im Sklerotisierungsprozess von Hartteilen verschiedener wirbelloser Tiere

Source : Zool. Jahr. Allg. Physiol. Tiere. ; 0044-5185 ; 95: 1, 23-29

abstract: Peroxidase was demonstrated histochemically in diverse tanned substances of nematodes (Heterodera schachtii), molluscs (Mytilus edulis) and insects (Mantis religiosa, Protophormia terraenovae [Phormia terraenovae] and Galeruca tanaceti) by diaminobenzidin and o-dianisidin. The results are discussed in comparison with the sclerotization of the

 

Milledge G A ; 1997 ; Revision of the tribe Archimantini (Mantodea: Mantidae: Mantinae).

Source : Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria ; 0814-1827 ; 56(1): 1-63

abstract: The Australo-Papuan tribe Archimantini is redefined. The genera Pseudomantis Saussure and Rhodomantis Giglio- Tos are excluded. The genus Austromantis Sjostedt is recognised as valid and included. One new genus, Corthylomantis, and four new species, Archimantis gracilis, A. vittata, Austrovates papua and Corthylomantis baldersoni, are described. Archimantis minor Giglio-Tos is a new synonym of A. sobrina Saussure, Austromantis gracilis Sjostedt a new synonym of A. albomarginata Sjostedt and Coenomantis melanoptera (Tindale) a new synonym of C. kraussiana (Saussure). Archimantis inermis Werner is transferred to the neotropical genus Angela Serville. The subspecies Archimantis latistyla gigantea Beier is rejected as invalid. Keys to genera and species are provided.

 

Milledge G A ; 1990 ; Revision of the genus nesoxypilus beier mantodea amorphoscelidae paraoxypilinae.

Source : Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria ; 0814-1827 ; 50 (2): 347-356

abstract: Two species of the ant mimicking genus Nesoxypilus Beier are recognized and described: N. albomaculatus Werner (with its new junior synonym N. antennatus Beier) and N. pseudomyrmex sp. nov. The genus is redefined and a key to the species is given. Relationships and aspects of biology are discussed

 

Miller P L. ; 1971 ; Rhythmic activity in the insect nervous system part 2 sensory and electrical stimulation of ventilation in a mantid.

Source : Journal of Experimental Biology ; 0022-0949 ; 54 (3) : 599-607

Miller P L. ; 1972 ; Swimming in Mantids

Source : Journal of Entomology Series A General Entomology ; 0041-2409 ; 46(2):91-97

Miller P L. ; 1971 ; Rhythmic activity in the insect nervous system part 1 ventilatory coupling of a mantid

Source : Journal of Experimental Biology ; 0022-0949 ; 54 (3) : 587-597

Mineo, G. ; 1976 ; Studi morfo-biologici comparativi sugli stadi preimmaginali degli scelionidi (Hym. Proctotrupoidea). III. Nota su Mantibaria manticida (Kieff.)

Source : Bollettino Dell'Istituto di Entomologia Agraria e ; ; 10: 95-103 publ 1980.

abstract: Dell'Osservatorio di Fitopatologia di Palermo In this third study on the larval morphology and biology of scelionid parasites [see preceding abstract], the head- capsule of larvae of all 3 instars of Mantibaria manticida (Kieff.) (which was dissected from the eggs of Mantis religiosa (L.) in Sicily) is redescribed and illustrated; similarity to the head-capsule of Gryon spp. was confirmed. Notes are given on the larval development of the parasite as observed in host eggs in the laboratory; second-instar parasite larvae became visible within the egg at the end of April and third-instar larvae at the beginning of May, while adults began to emerge in July during a period of high temperature.

 

Miralles, D. B. de. ; 1976 ; Notas sobre gordiaceos argentinos

Source : Neotropica (La Plata) ; 0548-1686 ; 22: 68, 77-80

abstract: Chordodes brasiliensis from Stagmatoptera sp., S. hyaloptera and S. precaria from Argentina is described and illustrated. Gordius robustus (one male), Pseudochordodes bedriagae and Paragordius varius (one female) are also described from Argentina, although the full information on these species (host, geographical distribution, description

 

Mkhize, A.B.V. ; 1972 ; Hisology and physiology of the madibular glands in Dictyoptera

Source : Journal of Entomology Series A General Entomology ; 0041-2409 ; 46(2):161-165

Moon TaeYoung. ; 1997 ; List of Blattaria, Mantodea and Phasmida deposited in the Korean Entomological

Source : Entomological Research Bulletin. ; ; 23: 55-57

abstract: Blattaria, Mantodea and Phasmida in the Korean Entomological Institute were examined and classified. A small number of specimens in good condition were carefully chosen and registered as vouchers for future works. Six species of Blattaria were identified as belonging to 3 genera and 2 families, 4 species of Mantodea belonging to 3 genera and 1 family, and 3 species of Phasmida belonging to 3 genera and 3 families. Therefore, the species kept in the Korean Entomological Institute represent 87.5% of Blattaria, 100% of Mantodea, and 60.00% of Phasmida known

 

Moran, M.D. ; 1998 ; A trophic cascade in a diverse arthropod community caused by a generalist arthropod

Source : Oecologia (Berlin)/=Oecologia (Heidelberg) ; 0029-8549/0013-8797 ; 113: 1, 126-132

abstract: The hypothesis that a generalist arthropod predator, Tenodera sinensis, could trigger a trophic cascade in an old-field ecosystem was tested in field experiments in 1995. These mantids had relatively weak effects on abundance and biomass of other carnivorous arthropods as a group. The effect of mantids on herbivores was stronger than on carnivores, mainly concentrated in Homoptera and Diptera. Herbivore load was reduced by mantids with the consequence that overall plant biomass (mainly grasses) was increased. Percapita interaction strengths between mantids and other arthropod taxa were, for the most part, weakly negative. It is concluded that a significant trophic cascade can be triggered by a generalist predator even within the framework of a diverse community with relatively

 

Moran, M.D. ; 1994 ; Short term responses to elevate predator densities: noncompetitive intraguild interactions

Source : Oecologia (Berlin)/=Oecologia (Heidelberg) ; 0029-8549/0013-8797 ; 98(3-4): 269 273

abstract: We investigated the short-term response of an arthropod assemblage to elevated generalist predator densities by introducing Chinese mantids (Tenodera sinensis) to field plots in a replicated, controlled experiment. Abundances of carnivorous arthropods were reduced by mantids to a greater extent than herbivores, and cursorial spiders emigrated from treatment plots in greater numbers than from controls. Initially, this emigration consisted only of small spiders that were demonstrated in the laboratory to be prey for mantids. Thus, the initial response of an arthropod assemblage to increased predator densities was increased interactions among predators, which caused decline in predator population densities in a shorter time than competition for prey would require. Predator avoidance behavior must be considered together with intraguild predation and competition when interpreting the outcome of predator manipulations. Short- term experiments may be more valuable than longer term studies in detecting this effect. ***Field studies conducted in Delaware and laboratory studies were used to investigate the short-term response of an arthropod assemblage to increasing the predator density by introducing the mantid Tenodera sinensis into field plots. The abundance of predatory arthropods was reduced by T. sinensis to a greater extent than that of herbivorous insects, and cursorial spiders emigrated from plots containing the mantid. Thus, the initial response of an arthropod assemblage to increasing the predator density was more interactions among predators causing their decline in a time shorter than that required for competition for prey. It is concluded that predator avoidance behaviour must be considered together with intraguild predation and competition when interpreting the outcome of predator

 

Moran, M.D. ; 1994 ; Environmentally determine male biased sex ratio in a praying mantid

Source : American Midland Naturalist ; 0003-0031 ;

abstract: Sex ratio in adult Chinese mantids (Tenodera sinensis Saussure) is male-biased at ecdysis, but not at egg hatch. Therefore, the biased adult sex ratio is not genetic, but established by ecological factors which cause disproportionate mortality among juvenile females. Variation in body mass among adult females caught in the field at ecdysis is significantly greater than among males, but this is not true of laboratory-reared nymphs fed ad lib. Nutritional demands of the much heavier females render them more susceptible to starvation when food is in short supply. Variation in

 

Moran, M.D. ; 1995 ; Intraguild predation between sympatric species of mantids (Mantodea: Mantidae)

Source : Proceedings of the Entomological Society of ; 0013-8797 ; 97: 634 638

abstract: I tested the importance of predation versus competition in two congeneric sympatric species of mantids, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Saussure) and T. angustipennis (Saussure), during the late portion of the juvenile stage of their life cycle. Tenodera angustipennis abundance was reduced through predation by the larger T. a. sinensis, but no evidence of competition for resources was demonstrated for either species. Tenodera a. sinensis gained more body mass in the presence of T. angustipennis indicating that the benefit of consuming smaller predators may outweigh the

 

Moran, M.D. ; 1997 ; Relieving food limitation reduces survivorship of a generalist predator.

Source : Ecology (Washington DC) ; 0012-9658 ; 78(4):1266-1270

abstract: We tested the hypothesis that food supplementation for the generalist arthropod predator Tenodera sinensis would alleviate starvation and reduce intraguild predation. Two field experiments showed that mantids had higher growth rates and lower dispersal in the presence of supplemental prey. However, estimated mortality was greater in food- addition plots, so that numbers of mantid nymphs remaining at the end of the experiments were not significantly different from those in control plots. When groups of mantids were raised in the laboratory, mortality declined with increased food, owing to decreased starvation. Cannibalism in these cohorts did not differ between food levels. Therefore, greater mortality at higher food levels probably was not caused by intraspecific interactions. Emigration of cursorial spiders large enough to prey on mantids decreased in the food-addition plots and may have increased

 

Moran, M.D. ; 1996 ; Top-down cascade from a biotrophic predator in an old-field community

Source : Ecology (Washington DC) ; 0012-9658 ; 77(7): 2219-2227

abstract: We tested the hypothesis that a bitrophic (third and fourth level) arthropod predator can exert a cascading, top-down influence on other arthropods and plants in an early successional old field. First-stadium mantids, Tenodera sinensis, were added to replicated open-field plots in numbers corresponding to naturally occurring egg hatch density and allowed to remain for apprxeq 2 mo. Sticky-trap dispersal barriers around both control and mantid-addition plots allowed us to monitor emigration of arthropods continuously during the experiment. Biomass of herbivores, carnivores, and plants, and abundances of arthropod taxa within plots were determined at the beginning, middle, and end of the experiment. The impact of mantids on the community was a top-down trophic cascade, beginning at the fourth trophic level and evident at each of the lower three levels. Mantids induced marked behavioral responses in other predators, but interference among predators did not prevent the trophic cascade. The most common predators, cursorial spiders, emigrated from mantid addition plots in significantly greater numbers than from controls. This behavioral response may have resulted from avoidance of predation or competition. Mantids decreased biomass of herbivorous arthropods through predation, and this decrease in turn increased biomass of plants. Therefore, these generalist predators were able to decrease herbivory enough to affect plant growth. This and other recent studies indicate that top-down effects can be important in structuring terrestrial communities. Ours is the first example of a top-down cascade by a generalist arthropod predator in a nonagricultural ecosystem and illustrates the importance of detecting behavioral responses in studies of trophic interactions. ****The hypothesis was tested that a bitrophic (3rd and 4th level) arthropod predator can exert a cascading, top-down influence on other arthropods and plants in an early successional old field. First-instar nymphs of the mantid Tenodera sinensis were added to replicated open-field plots in Delaware in numbers corresponding to naturally occurring egg hatch density and allowed to remain for about 2 months. Sticky-trap dispersal barriers around both control and mantid- addition plots were used to monitor emigration of arthropods continuously. The biomass of herbivores, carnivores, and plants, and abundances of arthropod taxa within plots were determined at the beginning, middle, and end of the experiment. The impact of mantids on the community was a top-down trophic cascade, beginning at the 4th trophic level and evident at each of the lower levels. Mantids induced marked behavioural responses in other predators, but interference among predators did not prevent the trophic cascade. The most common predators, cursorial spiders, emigrated from mantid addition plots in significantly greater numbers than from controls. This behavioural response may have resulted from avoidance of predation or competition. Mantids decreased biomass of herbivorous arthropods through predation, and this decrease in turn increased biomass of plants. It is concluded that this is the first example of

 

Mukherjee, T.K., ; 1992 ; Type specimens of mantodea in the zoological survey of india collections calcutta india.

Source : Raffles Bulletin of Zoology ; 0217-2445 ; 40 (1) : 65-68

abstract: -

 

Mukherjee, T.K., ; 1995 ; The mantid fauna of India (Insecta, Mantodea).

Source : Oriental Insects ; 0030-5316 ; 29: 185-358.

abstract: A comprehensive review of mantid taxonomy is attempted, including descriptions of taxa, various developmental stages, notes on habitat preference in relation to temperature, altitude, vegetation and other factors, and observations on offensive, defensive, prey capture and copulatory behaviour. Biological observations on mortality, colour pattern of various instars and their significance, oxygen consumption and data on morphometrics of some species are provided. The patterns of distribution within India and in relation to the Oriental Region and other zoogeographic regions is also discussed. A total of 162 species under 68 genera of mantids from India are listed, of which 118 species are studied and others reviewed from literature. Two new genera (Pseudothespis, Parananomantis) and ten new species (Acromantis nicobarica, Axaxarcha intermedia, Leptomantis nigrocoxata, Pseudothespis meghalayensis, Nanomantis lactea, Parananomantis brevis, Hierodula (H.) assamensis, H. (H.) beieri, H. (H.) nicobarica, and Mantis indica) are

 

Naeem M ; 1996 ; Mantodea (Dictyoptera) from the Punjab Province of Pakistan.

Source : Entomologist's Monthly Magazine ; 0013-8908 ; 132(1588-1591): 281-284.

abstract: Version N°1 The taxonomy and biology of mantids, an important group of predators, has been neglected in Pakistan. Partially to redress this, mantids were collected from various localities of the Punjab Province during 1990 and 1991, yielding 30 species in 21 genera and 5 families. Thirteen species, namely Amorphoscelis annulicornis, Empusa pennicornis, Blepharopsis VERSION N°2 The taxonomy and biology of mantids, an important group of predators, has been neglected in Pakistan. Partially to redress this, mantids were collected from various localities of the Punjab Province during 1990 and 1991, yielding 30 species in 21 genera and 5 families. Thirteen species, namely Amorphoscelis annulicornis, Empusa pennicornis, Blepharopsis nuda, Odontomantis sinensis, Aethalochroa ashmoliana, Heterochaefula fissispinis, Iris tiflisina, Deiphobella laticeps, Eufischeriella fraterna, Deiphobe brunneri, Ormomantis indica, Mantis nobilis and Tenodera aridifolia are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. An undescribed Ormomantis species is recognised. nuda, Odontomantis sinensis, Aethalochroa ashmoliana, Heterochaefula fissispinis, Iris tiflisina, Deiphobella laticeps, Eufischeriella fraterna, Deiphobe brunneri, Ormomantis indica, Mantis nobilis and Tenodera aridifolia are recorded for the first time from Pakistan. An undescribed Ormomantis species is recognised.

 

Nel, A ; 1996 ; Revision of the fossil "mantid" and "ephemerid" species described by Piton from the paleocene of Menat (France) (mantodea: Chaeteessidae, Mantidae, Ensifer:

Source : Eupropean Journal of Entomology ; 1210-5759 ; 93(2): 223 234

abstract: Some fossil insects from the Palaeocene of Menat (France), described by Piton as Mantodea, but also Ephemeroptera are revised. The presence of the Neotropical mantid family Chaeteessidae in the Palaeocene of France, inferred by Gratshev & Zherikhin, is confirmed. The presence in Menat of the mantid family Empusidae was an error of interpretation. The order Ephemeroptera is represented only by an undescribed nymph. Biogeographic implications

 

Nicklas R B. ; 1992 ; Evolution and the meaning of metaphase.

Source : Journal of Cell Science ; 0021-9533 ; 102 ( Pt 4):681-90,

abstract: We used an evolutionary test to ask whether the congression of chromosomes to the spindle equator is important in itself or just a mitotic happenstance. If congression matters, then it might evolve if absent initially. Previous workers established that newly made trivalents, meiotic units of three chromosomes, generally do not congress to the spindle equator. Instead, these young trivalents lie close to the pole to which two of the three chromosomes are oriented. We studied ancient sex-chromosome trivalents that arose hundreds of thousands to several million years ago in several species of praying mantids and one grasshopper. All these old trivalents lie near the spindle equator at metaphase; some of them congress as precisely to the equator as the ordinary chromosomes in the same cells. We conclude that congression evolved independently two or three times in the materials studied. Therefore, the metaphase position of chromosomes midway between the poles appears to matter, but why? In the praying mantids, the evident answer is that metaphase is a quality-control checkpoint. Sometimes the three chromosomes are not associated in a trivalent but rather are present as a bivalent plus an unpaired chromosome, which lies near one pole. Earlier workers showed that such cells are blocked in metaphase and eventually degenerate; this prevents the formation of sperm with abnormal combinations of sex chromosomes. We suggest that the quality-control system would have trouble distinguishing an unpaired chromosome from an uncongressed, newly arisen trivalent, both of which would lie near a spindle pole. If so, the confused quality-control system would block anaphase imprudently, causing a loss of cells that would have produced normal sperm. Hence, we conclude that the congression of the trivalent to the equator probably evolved along with the metaphase quality-control checkpoint. The mechanism of congression in old trivalents is uncertain, but probably involves an interesting force-sensitive regulation of the motors associated with particular chromosomes. We also examined the congression of two newly made quadrivalents when they orient with three kinetochores to one pole and one to the other. As others have described, one of these quadrivalents does not congress, while the other quadrivalent comes closer than expected to the spindle equator. Such variation in the extent of congression may provide materials on which natural selection can act, leading to the evolution of congression. The trivalents of praying

 

Nickle, D.A. ; 1991 ; Prey recognition time of prayin mantids (Dictyoptera: Mantidae) and consequent survivorship o unpalatable prey (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)

Source : Journal of Insect Behavior ; 0892-7553 ; 4: 265 273

abstract: When juvenile praying mantids (Tenodera sinensis) were exposed to unpalatable prey (the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus), they attacked, sampled, and then usually rejected the prey. About 70% of the handling time was spent feeding. When offered a second milkweed bug, the mantids usually attacked the prey. However, the overall time required for the mantids to sample, recognize and then reject the unpalatable prey decreased by half. The proportion of handling time that was spent feeding remained the same as in the first encounter. In contrast, when the second prey individuals encountered by mantids were Drosophila melanogaster, the flies were completely consumed and the proportion of handling time that was spent feeding significantly increased. When praying mantids were exposed to the milkweed bugs for the first time, up to 33% of the bugs survived attack by the mantids. Survival of milkweed bugs

 

Oliveira P S. ; 1985 ; On the mimetic association between nymphs of Hyalymenus-spp hemiptera alydidae and

Source : Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society ; ; 83 (4) : 371-384

abstract: Nymphs of Hyalymenus, unlike adults, have a highly differentiated ant-like morphology. Both H. tarsatus and H. limbativentris feed mainly on reproductive parts of composites and solanaceous plants, respectively. Mimetic nymphs were observed on plants, together with ants, both day and night; adult Hyalymenus are predominantly nocturnal. Ant- resemblance in nymphs is achieved by several structural adaptations which, when coupled with the mimic's zig-zag locomotion and constantly agitated antennae, produces a striking visual deception. Experiments in captivity showed that mimetic nymphs, but not adult Hyalymenus, are somewhat protected against attacks from the praying mantid Oxyopsis media found on their host plant. Color and size changes through different nymphal instars of Hyalymenus allow the immature bugs to resemble, during their development, differently sized and colored ant models. Similar- looking ant species seem to act as Muellerian mimics toward insectivorous vertebrates and invertebrates that avoid ants. Nymphs of Hyalymenus may gain Batesian protection by resembling available ant models of different Muellerian complexes. Density-dependent selection is thought to be responsible for the observed differences in

 

Orozco J C. ; 1994 ; Supernumerary chromosomes in Mantodea.

Source : Cytobios ; 0011-4529 ; 79 (316): 7-13.

abstract: The existence of B-chromosomes in two species of the order Mantodea, namely Empusa pennata and Ameles sp. n is described for the first time. A supernumerary chromosome segment in Iris oratoria is also described.

 

Orozco J C. ; 1983 ; Preliminary results in the study of chromosome races found in Ameles abjecta amelinae

Source : Genetica (The Hague) ; ; 61 (3) : 219-220

abstract: Two chromosome races found in A. abjecta (Cyrillo) are reported; Type A (2n = 29 in males) and Type B (2n = 15 in males). The NF is both is 30 in males.

 

Paradise, C.J. ; 1990 ; Variable quantities of toxic die cause different degrees of compensatory and inhibitory responses by juvenile praying mantids

Source : Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata ; 0013-8703 ; 55: 213 222

abstract: Juvenile praying mantids are faced with a wide variety of prey types, including physiologically harmful ones. How they respond to these prey, behaviorally and physiologically, is examined in this study. By adapting a technique developed by Blau et al. (1978) for herbivourous insects, we determined the deterrence and toxicity of unpalatable prey. Artificial diets containing different percentages of cardenolide-containing prey were offered to third instar juveniles. When fed diets containing small proportions of unpalatable milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus faciatus Dallas), juvenile mantids (Tenodera sinensis Saussure) showed a slight decrease in consumption and growth. In contrast, with an intermediate proportion of milkweed bugs in the diet, feeding was not inhibited and, correspondingly, a marked reduction in growth rate occurred. Yet higher proportions of milkweed bugs in the diet acted primarily as a feeding deterrent. Mantids from different egg cases responded differently to the same range of milkweed bug diets. This variation was evident both in acceptance of the novel diet and in relative consumption rates. ********* The response of 3rd-instar nymphs of Tenodera sinensis [T. aridifolia sinensis] to unpalatable prey (adults of Oncopeltus fasciatus raised on seeds of Asclepias syriaca) and larvae of Tenebrio molitor was studied in the laboratory. Synthetic diets containing different percentages of cardenolide-containing prey were offered to nymphs of Tenodera aridifolia sinensis. When fed diets containing small proportions of unpalatable prey (1.6, 2.4 and 4.8% O. fasciatus powder), nymphs showed a slight decrease in consumption (1.75, 2.08 and 1.54 mg dry weight, resp.) and growth (0.073, 0.04 and 0.027 relative growth rate) compared to those with a diet which did not contain O. fasciatus (2.465 and 0.095 consumption and relative growth rate, resp.). In contrast, with an intermediate proportion of O. fasciatus in the diet (16.7%), feeding was not inhibited (2.44 mg dry weight consumed) and a marked reduction in growth rate occurred (0.019). Higher proportions of O. fasciatus (83.3 and 90.9%) acted primarily as a feeding deterrent (0.793 and 0.737 mg dry weight consumed, resp.). Mantids from different egg cases responded differently to the same range of

 

Paradise, C.J. ; 1991 ; Abundant prey can alleviat previous adverse effects on growth of juvenile praying mantid

Source : Annals of the Entomological Society of America ; 0013-8746 ; 84: 396 406

abstract: First-and second-instar mantids given small amounts of food (similar to prey availability in the field) attained a smaller size and spent more time in those developmental stages than mantids offered as much as they could eat. In two to three cohorts, mantids reared during the first stadium on a low quantity diet recovered during the second stadium when they were switched to a high diet, by having a higher relative consumption rate, gaining as much weight as and spending less time in the second stadium than those reared on the high diet throughout. Consequently, in two of three mantid cohorts, mantids switched from low to high quantity diets weighted as much as the end of the test as those reared continuously on the high quantity diet. When deprived of food just after emergence in another experiment, relative growth rate of mantids given a low diet over the first stadium was unimpaired until the third day without food. In contrast, mantids deprived of food for 2 d and then given a high diet had a high relative consumption rate and the highest relative growth rate, a consequence of fewer days spent in the first stadium. In a third experiment in which three treatments consisted of the same total number of prey per day but presented in different sequences and thus having different prey densities, prey density affected consumption of flies and consumption by mantids was high when prey density was high. However, relative growth rate was similar among treatments, which may reflect distracted mantids at high prey densities. These results show that mantids can compensate under some conditions for short-term food deprivation and effects of local prey density by increased consumption rate, and thus can develop more quickly.

 

Paradise, C.J. ; 1993 ; Episodes of unpalatable pre reduce consumption and growth of juvenile praying mantis

Source : Journal of Insect Behavior ; 0892-7553 ; 6: 155 166

abstract: Third-instar praying mantids (Tenodera sinensis Saussure: Mantidae) were fed either a sequence of unpalatable milkweed bugs (Oncopeltus fasciatus Dallas:Lygaeidae) and palatable fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: Drosophilidae) or a control diet of palatable flies only. Mantids fed a sequence of 3 days of unpalatable bugs and 4 days of palatable flies took, on average, 5 days longer to develop to the fourth instar than the controls, and consequently, their growth rate was less than that of the controls. They ate 10-15 unpalatable bugs in that time, but also, because the stadium was prolonged, they ended up eating as many flies as the faster-growing controls and therefore attained similar biomass. Mantids subjected to episodes of 2 days with unpalatable bugs followed by 4 days of flies had reduced growth rates that were a function of both more time spent in the stadium and less weight gained than the controls. Mantids subjected to episodes of 1 day with unpalatable bugs followed by 4 days of flies did not gain as much weight as the controls but had similar growth rates. Mantids fed unpalatable bugs on Days 1 and 6 and palatable flies on the other days and mantids fed flies for 4 days and then 1 day without food grew at the same rate. In this case, eating unpalatable prey for 2 days of 7 (with 7 days = average stadium duration) slowed weight gain as much as missing food for a day. We conclude that, depending on the sequence, episodes (in this case, 1 or more days) of eating unpalatable prey can reduce the daily rate of consumption sufficiently to have a negative impact on

 

Paulian, Renaud ; 1961 ; Trois nouveaux Mantides de Madagascar (Dictyoptères)

Source : Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France ; 0037-928X ; 66: 162 164

Paulian, Renaud ; 1957 ; Faune de Madagascar, vol V , Insectes , Mantodea

Source : Institut de recherche scientifique Tananarive- ; ; V :1-102

Paulian, Renaud ; 1958 ; Mantides Malgaches nouveaux ou méconnus

Source : Le Naturaliste Malgache ; 0369-6111 ; tome X, 1-2 : 31 36

Peck, S.B. ; 1989 ; A survey of insects of the Florida Keys: cockroaches (Blattodea), mantids (Mantodea), and walkingsticks(Phasmatodea).

Source : Florida Ent. ; 0015-4040 ; 72: 612-617.

abstract: A survey of cockroaches, mantids and Phasmatodea in native forests in south Florida found 15 species, from a total of about 40 (15 of which are introduced) which occur in all of Florida. Three cockroach species are added to the Florida fauna. Compsodes schwarzi, previously known from Mexico and Texas, is reported from Florida for the first time. Neoblattella detersa and Symploce morsei, both known from elsewhere in the Caribbean, are reported for the USA for the first time. The only introduced species found to have invaded native habitats was the parthenogenetic cockroach Pycnoscelus surinamensis. Parcoblatta fulvescens had invaded from the southeastern USA. The other 13 species were

 

Peck, S.B. ; 1996 ; Diversity and distribution of the orthopteroid insects of the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.

Source : Canadian Journal of Zoology ; 0008-4301 ; 74: 8, 1497-1510

abstract: Families represented on the Galapagos Islands, including those from this survey conducted in 1985, 1989 and 1991- 92, are: Acrididae, Tettigoniidae, Gryllidae, Anisembiidae, Oligotomidae, Mantidae, Carcinophoridae, Labiidae, Kalotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Zorotypidae, Blattidae, Polyphagidae, Blattellidae and Blaberidae. The total number of orthopteroid species on the islands is now 57 in 37 genera and 7 orders.

 

Petersen G. ; 1970 ; Catalogue of the types in the collections of the german entomological institute part 2 Dermaptera Mantodea Blattariae Isoptera Phasmidae Saltatoria.

Source : Beitraege zur Entomologie ; ; 20 (1-2) : 145-172

Petryszak A. ; 1993 ; External proprioceptors in legs of various function of insects of lower orders.

Source : Acta Biologica Cracoviensia Series Zoologia ; 0000-153X ; 34-35: 1-11.

abstract: Occurrence of external proprioceptors: hair plates and campaniform sensilla (pores) groups was studied in legs of representatives of lower orders of insects: Odonata, Blattodea, Mantodea, Isoptera, Cheleutoptera, and Orthoptera. These organs are always present in base leg segments while in distal segments their occurrence vary. The differences in arrangement of external proprioceptors reflect both systematic affinity, and various locomotion patterns of these

 

Pike E M . ; 1994 ; Historical changes in insect community structure as indicated by hexapods of Upper Cretaceous Alberta (Grassy Lake) amber.

Source : Canad.Ent. ; 0008-347X ; 126 (3): 695-702.

abstract: Species richness and relative abundance of arthropod taxa from an Upper Cretaceous (Campanian: 75 Mya) amber deposit in Alberta are described. About 130 hexapod species have been recognized to date from this deposit, making it the most diverse Cretaceous insect assemblage so far known. Taxa present, in order of abundance, are Hemiptera (66 specimens per kg), Diptera (28), Acari (21), Hymenoptera (13), Aranaea (12), Psocoptera (4), Coleoptera (2), Blattodea (1), Thysanoptera (1), and Trichoptera (0.6). Representatives of Lepidoptera, Collembota, Dermaptera, Mantodea, Phasmatodea, and Ephemeropteraare are also present. In the total of 65 identified families, 15 are extinct. Only one of about 77 genera identified in this deposit is extant. All recognized species are extinct. In comparison, virtually all families reported from Baltic and Dominican Republic ambers are extant, as are the majority of the genera. Morphology and feeding structures are well within the variation seen in modem insects. It is hypothesized that the taxonomic structure of modem insect communities was well established before the end of the

 

Poteser, M. ; 1998 ; Proprioceptive contribution to distance estimation by motion parallax in a praying mantid.

Source : Journal of Experimental Biology ; 0022-0949 ; 201: 9, 1483-1491

abstract: The manner in which the proprioceptive cervical hair plate sensilla of the praying mantis, Tenodera sinensis, are involved in the measurement of the distance to a jump target were examined with the aid of motion parallax actively produced by translatory head motion. Various combinations of surgical deafferentation of the cervical hair plate sensilla had no influence on the linearization of head motion. However, the measurement of relative and absolute distance and the jump frequency were impaired by these interventions. From the results it is concluded that the cervical hair plate sensilla are involved in the distance measurement mechanism, probably by allowing the nervous

 

Poteser, M. ; 1995 ; Visual distance discrimination between stationary targets in praying mantis: an index of the use of motio parallax

Source : Journal of Experimental Biology ; 0022-0949 ; 198: 2127 2137

abstract: When larvae of the praying mantis Polyspilota sp. and Tenodera sinensis want to leave an exposed position and can choose to move between stationary objects at different distances, they usually choose the nearest. Their ability to select the nearest object is greatest when the background has horizontal stripes and is least when it has vertical stripes. Object preference is based on a successive distance comparison, which may involve content-related memory processes. 2. Mantid larvae can determine the absolute distance to a stationary object. Vertical contrasting borders play an important role in this process. 3. Side-to-side head movements (peering) are directly involved in the distance measurement, as shown (i) by the peering behaviour itself and (ii) by the fact that mantids can be deceived in distance measurement by arbitrary movements of target objects during the peering movement. It is supposed that the distance measurement involves the larger and faster retinal image shifts that near, as opposed to more distant, objects evoke. 4. Mantid larvae can distinguish a black-and-white rectangle in the foreground from a black-and-white striped background, even when both are similar with respect to luminance, contrast and texture. The ability to distinguish between figures and background could be explained by motion parallaxes, i.e. by the fact that during peering movements the nearer object moves faster and by a larger angle than the background structure. 5. From birth onwards, even when the eyes have yet to develop foveal specialization, mantids are capable of this visually controlled

 

Presa, J. J. ; 1998 ; Inventario y dinamica poblacional de los ortopteroides (Orthoptera, Blattoptera, Mantodea y Phasmoptera) del parque natural del "Carrascal de la Font Roja" (Alicante,

Source : Zoologica Baetica ; ; 9: 185-204

abstract: A catalogue of orthopteroid insects from a nature reserve in Alicante, Spain, is presented. The insects were sampled monthly between September 1995 and October 1996 at 10 sites by sweeping and the use of pitfall traps. Geographical distribution and population dynamics are discussed. The cockroach Loboptera decipiens was among the

 

Prete F R. ; 1992 ; Discrimination of visual stimuli representing prey versus non-prey by the praying mantis sphodromantis-lineola burr.

Source : Brain Behavior and Evolution. ; 0006-8977 ; 39 (5) : 285-288

abstract: Adult, female praying mantids, Sphodromantis lineola (Burr.), were presented with seventy, flat black rectangles which moved toward the mantids (in the horizontal plane) against a white background. The lengths of the lures edges parallel to their direction of movement, 1(1), were 1.5, 3.6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 54, 72, or 114 mm, the edge lengths perpendicular to movement direction, 1(2), were 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, or 30 mm. Mantids emitted the most predatory behaviors to square lures (11 = 12) for which 1(1, 2) = 3-12 mm, and to 'worm' lures (11 >12) for which 1(2) = 1.5-6 mm. 'Anti-worm' lures (11<12) were poor releasers of predatory behavior. These results reconcile seemingly discrepant findings between studies that have presented mantids with various types of ossillating, rotating and/or three- dimensional lures. Further, the results indicate that like other terrestrial predators, such as toads, prey recognition by S. lineola is approximate and based on the spatiotemporal relationships between the features of moving objects (i.e.

 

Prete F R. ; 1992 ; Non-predatory ingestive behaviors of the praying mantids Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Sauss.) and Sphodromantis lineola (Burr.).

Source : Brain Behavior and Evolution. ; 0006-8977 ; 39: 124 132

abstract: Praying mantids are thought to be so strictly predacious, historically, carnivorousness has been used as a defining characteristic of the taxon Mantodea, and no data exist on other ingestive behaviors. We observed food- and water deprived male and female Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Sauss.) and Sphgodromantis lineola (Burr.) in various situations and found that their ingestive behaviors are more variables than generally recognized. Both species regularly drink water in response to deprivation, the amount imbibed being correlated with the total (but not daily) percent of initial body weight lost. When presented with stimuli consisting of plastic beads of different reflective quality (shiny clear, opaque frosted, or matte black), lighted by a single direct light source, the shiny stimuli consistently elicited the most drinking-like behavior by the mantids. The preference was consistent, whether stimuli were presented together or singly. This suggests that visual cues can be used to identify water and are alone capable of maintaining drinking-like behavior. When S. lineola were presented with various stimuli, including diced apple and diced banana, in a five-way or a three-way choice test, mantids that chose a stimulus within the allotted time consistently ate the diced banana. When presented one of two stimuli differing only in odor (30 .times. 20 .times. 15 mm cloth bags filled with either plastic beads or banana), S. lineola did not attempt to eat the former, but 50% attempted to eat the bag of banana. Eating bouts were always preceded by antennae drumming in the direction of, or over the stimulus. These findings indicate that at least one species of manid is facultative omnivor and that olfaction or contact chemoreceptor plays a role in identifying potential food. Our findings for mantids fit currently accepted, general models of insect drinking and eating behavior. Futher, faculative omnivorousness suggest a closer phylogenetic relationship to the

 

Prete F R. ; 1990 ; The predatory strike of the praying mantis, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis

Source : Journal of Insect Physiology ; 0022-1910 ; 36(8): 561 565

abstract: Analyses of time-lapse video recordings of free-moving, seven-(last larval) instar and adult praying mantids, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis (Sauss.) of both sexes have revealed that this insect's predatory strike is more variable than has been reported for preparations that are tethered or restricted in their movements. Differences were found in four aspects of prey-catching behaviour. Compared to tethered or movement restricted preparations, free-moving T. sinensis initiate strikes from both longer and shorter mantis-prey distances, lung over a wider range of distances, and can capture prey at shorter mantis-prey distances. Further, free-moving T. sinsensis can successfully capture prey which is initially struck by the tibia as well as the femur. These findings increase our understanding both of mantis hunting behaviour, and the mehcanical limitations of the mantis' raptorial forelegs. ************ Analyses of time-lapse video recordings of the predatory strike of free-moving last-instar nymphs and adults of the mantid Tenodera aridifolia sinensis of both sexes (with Acheta domesticus as prey) showed greater variation than previously reported for individuals that were tethered or restricted in their movements. Differences were found in 4 aspects of prey-catching behaviour. In comparison to tethered or movement-restricted preparations, free-moving T. a. sinensis initiated strikes from both longer and shorter mantid-prey distances, lunged over a wider range of distances, and captured prey at shorter mantid-prey distances. Free-moving T. a. sinensis successfully captured prey which was

 

Prete F R. ; 1993 ; Stimulus configuration and location in the visua field affect appetitive responses by the praying mantis Sphodromanti lineola (Burr )

Source : Visual Neuroscience ; 0952-5238 ; 10: 997 1005

abstract: Adult female praying mantises, Sphodromantis lineola (Burr.), were presented with computer-generated black rectangular stimuli that moved horizontally or vertically at 82 deg/s against a homogeneous white background. Both stimulus configuration (orientation in relation to direction) and the retinal location of the stimulus image affected the rate at which mantises responded appetitively (approached or struck at the stimulus). Mantises responded most to square stimuli (12.5 deg x 12.5 deg) when they moved horizontally or vertically through, or horizontally at 24.5 deg below the center of their visual field. Mantises also responded most to vertically (vs. horizontally) oriented rectangular stimuli (12.5 deg x 47 deg) that moved through their visual-field center, irrespective of whether the stimuli moved downward or horizontally. Upward moving stimuli elicited intermediate amounts of behavior with no configuration preference. Mantises did not demonstrate a configuration preference when rectangular stimuli moved > or = 24.5 deg outside of the visual-field center. Furthermore, mantises responded very little and demonstrated no configuration

 

Prete F R. ; 1992 ; The effects of background pattern and contrast o prey discrimination by the praying mantis Sphodromantis lineol (Burr )

Source : Brain Behavior and Evolution. ; 0006-8977 ; 40: 311 320

abstract: Tethered, adult female Sphodromantis lineola (Burr.) were presented with two groups of two-dimensional stimuli (i.e., 2-D lures) against various backgrounds. Lure Group 1 comprised various black rectangles in three different size arrays: each size array included a 2, 6, or 12 mm square, respectively, several 'worm' lures of a constant width (l2, edge perpendicular to the direction of movement, 3-30 mm), but varying in length (l1, parallel to the direction of movement, 6-114 mm), and several 'antiworm' lures of a constant length but varying width. Group 1 lures were presented against patterned backgrounds of similar luminance: one natural pattern mimicking foliage and the other a random geometric pattern of rectangles. Group 2 lures comprised various configurations and combinations of black and white lures which were presented against white, black, and natural pattern backgrounds. The appetitive behaviors of approaching and striking at a lure were dependent measures indicating that a stimulus was categorized as prey. For Group 1 lures, overall response rates to lures of the same size were enhanced by the natural pattern background rather than the geometric pattern background. Against the natural pattern background, worm lures were stronger releasers of predatory behavior than antiworm lures of the same size. Lure configuration (especially for the smallest array) was masked by the geometric pattern background, although worm versus antiworm discrimination was apparent with the largest size array. For Group 2 lures, lure-to-background contrast, as well as configuration, effected prey recognition. For instance, lures with low lure-to-background contrast ratios were weaker releasers than those with high ratios, and lures that were darker (versus lighter) than the background were stronger releasers. In addition, particular stimulus properties interacted to effect lure strength. For instance, a weak or strong releaser became stronger or weaker, respectively, when a more or less, respectively, preferred releaser was super-imposed. The results also suggest that S.

 

Prete F R. ; 1990 ; Prey capture in mantids: prothoracic tibial flexion reflex.

Source : Journal of Insect Physiology ; 0022-1910 ; 36: 335 338

abstract: The role which the prothoracic tibial flexion reflex plays in prey catching by the mantid Tenodera aridifolia sinensis was examined using Drosophila and Acheta domesticus as prey. This reflex was elicited both by tactile stimulation of the movable spines on the ventro-medial border of the raptorial foreleg femur, and by pulling against the tibia. The reflex elicited by spine stimulation was inhibited when the ipsilateral tarsus was resting on the substrate, but was not if the tibia rested on the substrate after removal of the tarsus. Immobilizing the femoral spines by covering them with paraffin wax eliminated the ipsilateral tibial reflex to spine stimulation but not to tibia pulling. If either the right or left set of femoral spines were immobilized, the waxed foreleg failed to grip prey, and was readjusted around captured prey more frequently than the normal leg. If both sets of femoral spines were immobilized, the mantid's ability to successfully capture prey was impaired but not eliminated. It is concluded that proprioceptive feedback from the movable femoral spines and the tibiae play roles in, but neither are solely responsible for, maintaining a continuous

 

Prete F R. ; 1992 ; Discrimination of visual stimuli representing prey versus non-prey by the praying mantis Sphodromantis lineola (Burr.).

Source : Brain Behavior and Evolution. ; 0006-8977 ; 39(5):285-8,

abstract: Adult, female praying mantids, Sphodromantis lineola (Burr.), were presented with seventy, flat black rectangles which moved toward the mantids (in the horizontal plane) against a white background. The lengths of the lures' edges parallel to their direction of movement, 1(1), were 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 54, 72, or 114 mm; the edge lengths perpendicular to movement direction, 1(2), were 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, or 30 mm. Mantids emitted the most predatory behaviors to square lures (1[1] = 1[2]) for which 1(1, 2) = 3-12 mm, and to 'worm' lures (1[1] greater than 1[2]) for which 1(2) = 1.5-6 mm. 'Anti-worm' lures (1[1] less than 1[2]) were poor releasers of predatory behavior. These results reconcile seemingly discrepant findings between studies that have presented mantids with various types of oscillating, rotating and/or three-dimensional lures. Further, the results indicate that like other terrestrial predators, such as toads, prey recognition by S. lineola is approximate and based on the spatiotemporal relationships between the features of

 

Prete F R. ; 1993 ; Appetitive responses to compute generated visual stimuli by the praying mantis Sphodromantis lineol (Burr )

Source : Visual Neuroscience ; 0952-5238 ; 10: 669 679

abstract: Tethered adult female praying mantises, Sphodromantis lineola (Burr.), were presented with various computer- generated visual stimuli that moved against patterned or homogeneous white backgrounds in predetermined patterns and at predetermined speeds. The degrees to which the stimulus configurations elicited appetitive behaviors (attempting to approach and/or striking) indicated the relative degrees to which the stimuli were classified as prey. Mantises readily struck at cartoon "crickets" that subtended visual angles as great as 24.5 deg x 62.5 deg, but response rate was suppressed if the stimuli were superimposed on horizontally moving patterned backgrounds. Mantises also displayed appetitive behaviors to moving black squares (edge lengths = 10-47 deg) that moved in predetermined "erratic" paths; however, their response rates were affected by several factors: (1) response rate declined as edge length increased over 10 deg; (2) striking was emitted to stimuli viewed from 23 mm (but not farther) away; and (3) both stimulus displacement rate (distance moved between video frames) and apparent speed (video frame rate) dramatically affected the releasing strength of the stimuli. Finally, mantises responded appetitively to random dot patterns moving synchronously against identically patterned backgrounds and to pairs of black squares moving synchronously against a white background. However, in the latter case, response rate declined as the squares were moved farther apart horizontally or vertically. These and previous results from our laboratory on mantises are congruent with behavioral results obtained from other insects such as flies (Diptera) and dragon flies (Odonata) and

 

Prete F R. ; 1993 ; A chamber for mass hatching an early rearing of praying mantids (Orthoptera: Mantidae)

Source : Entomological News ; 0013-872X ; 104 (1): 47-52

abstract: A rugged, easily maintained polycarbonate and lucite chamber for the mass hatching and early rearing of praying mantises is described. The chamber is sealed after eggs are introduced so that even the smallest prey (e.g., Drosophila) cannot escape. An aquarium pump forces fresh air through a water bottle into the sealed chamber. Gas exchange and the introduction of prey, food, and water occur through several holes that are plugged with foam rubber. If necessary, the temperature of individual chambers can be raised above ambient by placing an incandescent light

 

Prete F R. ; 1996 ; The predatory strike of free ranging praying mantises, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister). II: Strikes in the horizontal plane

Source : Brain Behavior and Evolution. ; 0006-8977 ; 48(4): 191 204

abstract: The predatory behavior of free ranging praying mantises, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister), in response to prey at various positions in the horizontal plane was examined using high speed (200 frames per second) videography. We found that the movements of the meso- and metathoracic legs over the course of the strike were analogous in many respects to those made by the cockroach Periplaneta americana during escape turns. When mantises struck at prey directly ahead of them, they were propelled forward by extensions of the metathoracic femur-tibia, and the meso- and metathoracic coxa-femur joints (changes in the latter were determined indirectly via changes in the femur-pterothorax angles). This pattern of movements is similar to that of cockroach Type 1 turns. However, when prey lay to either side of the pterothorax-abdomen axis, mantises turned toward the prey as they stuck. These turning movements were the result, primarily, of changes in the femur-thorax angles. Specifically, as the mantises turned toward the prey, contralateral mesothoracic femora and metathoracic tibiae and femora extended, and the corresponding ipsilateral joints extended to a lesser degree or flexed. This pattern of movements is similar to that of cockroach Type 2 turns. In addition, these leg movements were accompanied by flexion of the prothorax-abdomen angle which turned the prothorax even further in the direction of the prey. We found a stronger relationship between mantis leg movements and the position of the prey in relationship to the pterothorax than between the leg movements and the position of the prey in the visual field. Our data suggest that the praying mantis' central nervous system integrates proprioceptive and visual information in order to determine the location of prey in "pterothorax-centered' rather than "head-centered'

 

Prete F R. ; 1992 ; Stimulus speed and order of presentation effect the visuall released predatory behaviors of the praying mantis Sphodromanti lineola (Burr )

Source : Brain Behavior and Evolution. ; 0006-8977 ; 42: 281 294

abstract: To assess the role of stimulus speed and order on the predatory behaviors of the praying mantis Sphodromantis lineola (Burr.), tethered adult females were presented with various flat black stimuli (lures) by means of a variable speed mechanical arm. Lure speed had a dramatic effect on mantis behavior: mantises emitted significantly more strikes to a 6 x 6 mm square and to 'worm' lures (i.e. length > width = 6 mm) moving at 34.3 cm/sec than they did to 'antiworm' lures (i.e. width > length = 6 mm), or to slower moving lures. These effects were consistent over lure directions (0-75 degrees relative to the mantis' long axis), and background patterns. On the other hand, mantises emitted significantly more approaching behavior to lures moving at 12 cm/sec than to lures moving at 36 cm/sec. This suggests that S. lineola extract distance information from retinal image velocity, as do other insects. Stimulus order also effected mantis predatory behavior: for instance, mantises were more likely to track a lure without striking at it on the first trial than on subsequent trials. However, after the first trial, they were also more likely to freeze (become immobile) when a lure was presented. Mantises were also less likely to strike at a preferred lure if it was preceded by one or two non- preferred lures. In a final experiment, intact, freely moving mantises were placed in an arena, presented with adult crickets, and video taped. The behaviors of the freely moving mantises were congruent with those of the tethered mantises in the previous experiments. This series of experiments demonstrates that the information processing capabilities of S. lineola are more complex than generally depicted, however, they can be explained by assuming a

 

Prete F R. ; 1996 ; Responses to moving small fiel stimuli by the praying mantis, Sphodromantis lineola

Source : Brain Behavior and Evolution. ; 0006-8977 ; 47(1): 42 54

abstract: Adult, female praying mantises, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister), were presented with mechanically driven or computer generated stimuli in a series of seven experiments in order to test several hypotheses regarding visual prey recognition. When presented with a series of square black and white computer generated stimuli against a white background, mantises performed the highest rates of predatory behavior in response to those stimuli with a greater proportion of black versus white pixels (i.e., those that produced larger luminance decrements). Higher response rates to computer generated stimuli that produced larger luminance decrements were also seen when the stimuli were irregularly shaped or consisted of two small synchronized stimuli. Mantises responded characteristically to mechanically driven stimuli that were camouflaged to match the background against which they moved, preferring small (vs. large) squares and rectangles that were elongated parallel (vs. perpendicular) to their direction of movement. Finally, response rate to a small, preferred mechanically presented or computer generated stimulus was suppressed by a concurrent large-field stimulus in inverse proportion to the distance between the two stimuli. This phenomenon is characteristic of systems that include phasic lateral inhibitory circuits. All of these results are consistent with the existence of a movement detector visual sub-system, as found in other orthopteromorph insects such as acridid grasshoppers and cockroaches.

 

Prinsloo G L ; 1990 ; Commentary on the insect fauna of the lower kuiseb river namib desert.Transvaal museum monograph, no. 7. Namib ecology: 25 years of namib research. Viii+230p

Source : Transvaal museum bookshop: pretoria, south africa. ; ISBN 0-907990-10-X. ; 7: 67-76.

Prost, A. ; 1983 ; Les mantes du Burkina Faso (ex-Republique de Haute-Volta)

Source : Bull. Inst. Fond. Afr. Noire (Ser. A) Sciences Naturelles ; 0018-9634 ; 45: 1-2, 66-117. , publ. 1986

abstract: Information is provided on the distribution, taxonomy and biology of the Mantodea (in 37 genera) of Burkina Faso. Keys to genera and species are provided. Notes 7 fig.

 

Ramsay, G.W** ; 1984 ; Miomantis caffra, a new mantid record (Mantodea:Mantidae) for New Zealand.

Source : New Zealand Entomologist ; ; 8: 102-104.

abstract: ex N°241 (duplicata)A Southern African mantid, M. caffra Saussure, is recorded as being established in New Zealand, and is distinguished from the only other New Zealand species, Orthodera ministralis (Fabricius).

 

Ramsay, G.W** ; 1993 ; Mantodea (Insecta), with a review of aspects of functional morphology and biology.

Source : Fauna of New Zealand ; ISBN 0-477-02581-1 ; vol. 19, 96 pp

abstract: Orthodera novaezealandiae (Colenso) (Orthoderinae) and Miomantis caffra Saussure (Mantinae) are the only two species of mantid established in New Zealand. O. novaezealandiae is taxonomically very close to some populations of O. ministralis (Fabricius) in Australia, with which it has generally been regarded as synonymous; it is here reaffirmed as a distinct species. M. caffra , a southern African species, was discovered in New Zealand in 1978 and is now established around Auckland and spreading. The taxonomy and status of these species are outlined, and characters distinguishing between them in all life stages are tabulated and illustrated. Morphology and life history are described in detail, with particular attention to variation in wing venation and genital characters. The history of mantid classification is discussed, and several aspects of mantid morphology and biology are critically reviewed, from a worldwide perspective, in the light of a detailed examination of the New Zealand species. These are: (a) femoral brush; (b) wing morphology; (c) pterostigma; (d) coloration; (e) stridulation; (f) acoustic sensitivity; (g) defence behaviour; (h) regeneration; (i) predation (on mantids); (j) parasitism; (k) pathology; (l) diet. SEMs show details of the femoral brush, pterostigma, and cyclopean ear (acoustic receptor).

 Note Price: $24.95.

 

Rathet, I.H. ; 1983 ; Ecological relationships of three cooccurring mantids, Tenodera sinensis (Saussure), T angustipenni (Saussure), and Mantis religiosa (Linnaeus)

Source : American Midland Naturalist ; 0003-0031 ; 110 (2) : 240-248.

abstract: Timed observations of T. sinensis (Saussure) and censuses of it and 2 other species of mantids, T. angustipennis (Saussure) and M. religiosa (Linnaeus), were made in the summer and autumn of 1981. Differences among these 3 similar species reduce niche overlap in a shared habitat. Height in the vegetation differed significantly between M. religiosa and Tenodera spp. but not between the 2 congeners. Earlier hatching time of T. sinensis reduces nymphal size overlap with its congener; M. religiosa is spatially separated from both Tendera spp. There were different degrees of emigration and oviposition between M. religiosa and Tenodera spp. on a censused field plot. T. sinensis spent most of its time inactive, with feeding, grooming and changing of location accounting for progressively lower proportions of the time budget. T. sinensis fed at higher sites in the vegetation more often than at lower ones. The

 

Rathore, N. S. ; 1996 ; Dictyoptera of the Thar Desert.

Source : Faunal diversity in the Thar Desert: gaps in research. ; 81-7233-118-5 ; 167-170

abstract: Scientific Publishers, Jodphur, India A checklist is presented of the dictyopteran (Blattaria and Mantodea) fauna of the Thar Desert area of Rajasthan, India. A number of new records for this area are claimed by the authors.

 

Reiche W. ; 1983 ; Empusa pennata Mantodea Empusidae.

Source : Neue Entomologische Nachrichten ; ; 5) : 14-16

Reitze, M. ; 1991 ; Comparative investigations into th feeding ecology of six Mantodea species

Source : Oecologia (Berlin)/=Oecologia (Heidelberg) ; 0029-8549/0013-8797 ; 86(4): 568 574

abstract: Six mantid species (Sphodromantis viridis, Polyspilota aeruginosa, Hierodula unimaculata, Parasphendale agrionia, Mantis religiosa and Empusa pennata) were studied in laboratory feeding experiments. Mantids stalk their prey and pounce on it, grasping it with their forelegs. Only living prey is selected and it is consumed directly after the catch. The predator orients itself optically, and therefore only takes notice of moving prey. The maximum size of prey which mantids can overwhelm is species-specific and depends on the prey type. On average mantids eat crickets of 50% their own body-weight while cockroaches can weigh up to 100%. Feeding experiments with 101 species of potential prey of 21 invertebrate orders showed an average feeding rate of 70% and marked differences among the predators. Polyspilota proved to be the least specialized mantid and Empusa caught the smallest amount of prey. Most of the defence mechanisms which arthropods have developed against their enemies proved to be ineffective against mantids. Neither a hard chitinous exoskeleton nor poisonous substances prevented the mantids from attacking their prey successfully. The protective secretion of the cotton stainer Dysdercus intermedius proved to be effective at least in a few instances. Even though these bugs were killed, the mantids usually refused to eat the abdomen, where the glands that produce the protective secretion are to be found. Thanatosis, as exhibited by the chrysomelid Cassida

 

Ridpath, M.G. ; 1977 ; Predation of frogs and small birds by Hierodul werneri (Mantidae) in tropical Australia

Source : Journal of the Australian Entomological Society = austr. ; 0004-9050 ; 16 (2) : 153-154

abstract: Observations are given of the capture and eating of green tree frogs Litoria caerulea, and the seizing of brown honeyeaters Lichmera indistincta by a large mantid H. werneri at Darwin, Northern Territory.

 

Robinson, M.H. ; 1978 ; Culture techniques for Acanthop falcata, a neotropical mantid suitable for biological studies (wit notes on raising web building spiders)

Source : Psyche ; ; 85: 239 247

abstract: A simple and inexpensive method developed in the laboratory in Panama for rearing Acanthops falcata Stal, a neotropical mantid considered by the authors to be suitable for use as a test insect in biological studies, is described. In addition, notes are given on rearing the web-building spiders Argyope argentata (F.) and A. aemula (Walck.) on Drosophila adults.

 

Rodriguez, Ernesto ; 1974 ; Allometric growth in the praying mantis Stagmatoptera biocellata

Source : Journal of Zoology (London) ; 0022-5460 ; 173 : 487-503

Rooney, T.P ; 1996 ; Global warning and the regional persiistance of a temperature-zone insect (Tenodera

Source : American Midland Naturalist ; 0003-0031 ; 136(1): 84 93

abstract: Models based on the paleoecological record predict that animals in temperate regions will respond to global warming by migrating poleward to remain within their temperature tolerance ranges. The effect of global warming on invertebrates is of great concern because of their critical role in ecosystem structure and function. Migration poses a problem for many species because of their limited dispersal abilities. The life cycle of a typical temperate zone univoltine insect, Tenodera sinensis (Mantodea: Mantidae) is constrained by degree-days per season: too few prevent maturation before the killing frost in the autumn; too many allow egg hatch before a killing frost. The used field and laboratory observations on the life history and ecology of this species to predict the effect of global warming on the regional distribution of this insect by the end of the next century. Based on the simplified, best-case, biological assumptions of our model, the geographical range of T. sinensis in eastern North America would be compressed toward the northern part of its present contiguous regional distribution. This and other univoltine temperate species

 

Rossel, S. ; 1992 ; Vertical disparity and binocular vision in the praying mantis.

Source : Visual Neuroscience ; 0952-5238 ; 8: 165 170

abstract: We have investigated how the binocular control of prey capture in the praying mantis is affected by abnormally larger vertical disparities, which were introduced by prisms placed in front of the eyes. The position of a target on the two retinae determines both the magnitude of head saccades made to fixate a target and its perceived distance. Over the whole range of vertical disparities tested (up to at least 30 deg), the frequency of fixating saccades is normal while the amplitude of their vertical component is a compromise between the saccades specified by each eye individually. Distance measurements are not affected by imposed vertical disparities. But the larger the vertical disparity, the more reluctant the mantid is to strike at the target until disparities exceed 15 deg when no strikes are elicited at all.

 

Rossel, S. ; 1996 ; Binocular vision in insects: How mantids solve the correspondence problem.

Source : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ; 0027-8424 ; 93(23) : 13229-13232

abstract: United States of America Praying mantids use binocular cues to judge whether their prey is in striking distance. When there are several moving targets within their binocular visual field, mantids need to solve the correspondence problem. They must select between the possible pairings of retinal images in the two eyes so that they can strike at a single real target. In this study, mantids were presented with two targets in various configurations, and the resulting fixating saccades that precede the strike were analyzed. The distributions of saccades show that mantids consistently prefer one out of several possible matches. Selection is in part guided by the position and the spatiotemporal features of the target image in each eye. Selection also depends upon the binocular disparity of the images, suggesting that insects can perform local binocular computations. The pairing rules ensure that mantids tend to aim at real targets and not at "ghost"

 

Rossel, S. ; 1991 ; Spatial vision in the praying mantis: is distance implicated in size detection?

Source : Journal of Comparative Physiology. A Sensory Neural ; 0340-7594 ; 169: 101 108

abstract: and Behavorial Physiology The catching behaviour of the praying mantis Sphodromantis viridis is investigated in order to see whether or not the detection of prey size depends on the detection of prey distance. A first experiment demonstrates the mantid's ability to discriminate small differences in prey distance. Next, the preferred prey size is determined for a number of distances with the preference being indicated by the strike rates. The results demonstrate that the mantid's judgements of size are based on a relative (angular) scale rather than on an absolute (millimetre) scale. This is a strong piece of evidence that a relation between size and distance does not exist. Finally, the attack behaviour is analysed in detail, but it turns out that prey size has no effect on the organization of both the lunge of the body and the strike of the raptorial forelegs. Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that mantids localize prey with precision, but they do so

 

Roy, Roger ; 1977 ; Contribution to the entomological fauna of the Republic of Niger. IV. The mantids of the

Source : Bull. Inst. Fond. Afr. Noire (Ser. A) Sciences Naturelles ; 0018-9634 ; 39: 1, 113-123

abstract: Notes are provided on the relative abundance and distribution of 26 species (in 5 families and 23 genera) of Mantodea that were taken in light-traps in the Maradi region of Niger in 1975-76. Notes 1 fig.

 

Roy, Roger ; 1984 ; A new species of Amorphoscelis formerly confused with Amorphoscelis laxeretis Mantodea Amorphoscelidae.

Source : Revue Francaise d'Entomologie.(Nouvelle Serie) ; 0181-0863 ; 6 (2) : 75-78

abstract: A. villiersi sp. nov. from Congo and Gabon is described.

 

Roy, Roger ; 1999 ; Mise à jour des connaissances pour le Genre Oxypilus Audinet-Serville 1831 (Mantodea, Hymenopodidae)

Source : Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France ; 0037-928X ; 104(4): 327-335

abstract: Une mise à jour des connaissances pour le Genre Oxypilus Audinet-Serville 1831 (Mantodea, Hymenopodidae) est présenté à l'occasion de la description de deux espèces nouvelles.

 

Roy, Roger ; 1991 ; Rehabilitation of the genus calospilota Giglio-Tos 1917 and description of a new species calospilota-pulchra new-species mantodea mantidae. [french]

Source : Revue Francaise d'Entomologie.(Nouvelle Serie) ; 0181-0863 ; 13 (3): 97-100.

abstract: Rehabilitation of the genus Calospilota Giglio-Tos, 1917, with description of the new species C. pulchra, sp. n., from Central African Republic and Cameroon.

 

Roy, Roger ; 1976 ; Revision of the genus Heterochaeta Mantodea.

Source : Bull. Inst. Fond. Afr. Noire (Ser. A) Sciences Naturelles ; 0018-9634 ; 38 (1) : 69-111

abstract: The genus is defined and a key is given to the species which are: H. tenuipes (Westwood), H. orientalis Kirby, H. zavatarii La Greca, H. occidentalis Beier, H. bernardii Roy, H. girardi Roy, H. strachani (Kirby), H. kumari Roy, H. pantherina (Saussure) and 2 new species. These are H. lamellosa, originally described by La Greca as Stenovantes pantherina in 1952 from British Somaliland, which is distinguished from S. pantherina by the very large, flat expansions of the fore coxae, by the color of the elytra and wings and by the genitalia and H. reticulata described from 4 males from Zaire. It resembles S. pantherina but is characterized by the very distinguished type of coloration and by the unusual shape of the subgenital plate. The genus is homogeneous-well characterized, but it is not yet possible

 

Roy, Roger ; 1995 ; Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Macracanthocarpus, Uvarov, with the description of the new species, M. seydeli (Mantodea, Mantidae, amelinae).

Source : Journal of African Zoology ; 0251-074X ; 109(3): 239 246

abstract: The genus Macracanthopus Uvarov, 1940, was formerly described as Megacanthopus by Chopard in 1929, a name rejected for preoccupation. This genus actually comprises three species from Central Africa, but in the past they were either misidentified or even synonymized, so that one remained nameless. A new diagnosis is given for the genus, a comparative study (including male genitalia) is done to distinguish the three species; then the new one is fully described. At last a list of all examined specimens representing the three species is given with their locations in

 

Roy, Roger ; 1971 ; Contribution to the knowledge of the mantids of upper volta.

Source : Bull. Inst. Fond. Afr. Noire (Ser. A) Sciences Naturelles ; 0018-9634 ; 33 (3) : 536-548

Roy, Roger ; 1972 ; Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Congoharpax Mantodea Hymenopodidae.

Source : Bull. Inst. Fond. Afr. Noire (Ser. A) Sciences Naturelles ; 0018-9634 ; 34 (4) : 857-868

Roy, Roger ; 1996 ; Revision of the Sibyllinae (Mantodea).

Source : Bulletin du Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle ; 0181-0626 ; 18(1-2):. 69-138.

abstract: Section a Zoologie Biologie et Ecologie Animales The exclusively African subfamily Sibyllinae, with the type genus Sibylla Stal, 1856, is fully revised by examining more than 1000 specimens. Identification keys are provided at all the levels, and descriptions with measurements and illustrations are given for all the taxa, while an inventory of known specimens is established for each. One genus, one subgenus and six species are newly named, and an attempt of evolutive scheme is provided, from morphological,

 

Roy, Roger ; 1989 ; A new species of mantids endemic to madagascar ( Dict. mantidae)

Source : Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France ; 0037-928X ; 94(1-2): 15-19

abstract: A new specie of polyspilota is decribed

 

Roy, Roger ; 1996 ; Reticulimantis Roy, 1973, new synonym of Pseudostagmatoptera Beier, 1931 (Dict.

Source : Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France ; 0037-928X ; 101(3).:234

Roy, Roger ; 1987 ; Overview of the biogeography of African mantides. In Evolutionary biology of orthopteroid

Source : B.M. Baccetti (ed.).Ellis Horwood ; * ; 489-495

Roy, Roger ; 1975 ; Addenda to the knowledge of the mantids of lamto ivory- coast.

Source : Bull. Inst. Fond. Afr. Noire (Ser. A) Sciences Naturelles ; 0018-9634 ; 37 (1) : 122-170

Sakai, M. ; 1998 ; The enumeration of insects collected at Uchiumi-mura, Ehime Prefecture, Japan (I).

Source : Memoirs of the College of Agriculture Ehime University. ; 0424-6829 ; 42: 2, 167-190

abstract: A total of 670 species of insects is recorded occurring in Ehime Prefecture, Japan. Distributional and taxonomic notes are provided for some species. The insects include Odonata, Blattaria, Mantodea, Isoptera, Orthoptera, Phasmida, Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Formicidae, and Lepidoptera are included. Diptera and Hymenoptera (apart from Formicidae)

 

Salanki, J. (éditor) ; 1981 ; Advances in physiological sciences. Satellite symposium of the 28th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, Tihany, Hungary 1980. Volume 23. Neurobiology of invertebrates. Mechanisms of integration.

Source : Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, Hungary ; ISBN 963-05-2749-9 ; 581 pp

abstract: This volume is one of a series of 36 comprising the Proceedings of the 28th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, held in Hungary in 1980. It is devoted to mechanisms of integration in the neurobiology of invertebrates, and contains over 30 papers, arranged approximately in the order of the invertebrate classes with which they deal. About the last 7 papers refer to investigations carried out on insects, including locusts, grasshoppers, mantids and

 

Sanz De Bremond M C ; 1991 ; Estudio comparativo de la genitalia femenina de cuatro especies ibericas de Mantidos (Mantodea: Mantidae, Empusidae)

Source : Nouvelle Revue D'Entomologie ; 0374-9797 ; 8: 4, 347-362

abstract: The morphology of the female genitalia of 4 mantid species, including Mantis religiosa, is compared.

 

Sanz De Bremond M C ; 1991 ; Estudio comparativo de la genitalia femenina de cuatro especies ibericas de Mantidos (Mantodea: Mantidae, Empusidae)

Source : Nouvelle Revue D'Entomologie ; 0374-9797 ; 8 (4):(1992) 347-362

abstract: The present study describes the spermatheca and the three pairs of valves which form the ovipositor of four species of Iberian mantids: Ameles assoi (Bolivar 1873), Mantis religiosa (Linnaeus, 1758), Empusa pennata (Thunberg, 1815), and Iris oratoria (Linnaeus, 1758). In addition, a series of characters of taxonomic interest is established, including the form of each pair of valves, the distribution of pilosity, and the presence or absence of certain structures such as the microsculptures of the dorsal valves, prolongations, protuberances and the crests of the ventral valves. It is also important to note the length of the spermathecal canal, and also whether the area of insertion is membranous or

 

Sathe, A.A. ; 1986 ; Spermathecal histology of virgin an mated females of the mantid, Hierodula oarctata, West (Dictyoptera:Mantidae)

Source : Current Science ; 0011-3991 ; 55: 1042 1044

abstract: The morphology of the spermathecae of virgin and mated females of Hierodula coarctata is described. The spermathecal epithelium has 2 layers in virgin females but only one layer in mated females. The epithelium of the spermathecal duct consists of 2 types of cells arranged in a single layer. In virgin females both the spermatheca and its duct have glandular epithelium while in mated females this is only present in the duct. Notes 5 fig.

 

Sato, ; H ; 1993 ; contribution to the knowledge of the mantids of the ibeiria peninsula.description of the female and redescription of the male of Pseudoyersinia paui bolivar 1898 insecta

Source : Boletin de la Real Sociedad Espanola de Historia ; 0366-3272 ; 89 (1-4): 125-134.

abstract: Natural Seccion Biologica In this paper the female and the genital character of the male of the Pseudoyersinia paui (Bolivar, 1898), the endemic Spanish species, are described for the first time.

 

Saussure H. de ; 1895 ; Physical , natural and Political history of Madagascar Island: Vol XXIII Orhtoptera natural

Source : Imprimerie nationale, Paris France ; ;

abstract: travaus de Mr Henri de saussure sur la faune Malgache

 

Scudder, G. G. E. ; 1984 ; A check-list of the Orthopteroid insects recorded from British Columbia.

Source : Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia. ; 0071-0733 ; 81: 76-79

abstract: A checklist of the 130 species of orthopteroid insects (including cockroaches, termites, mantids, crickets and grasshoppers) recorded from British Columbia is presented.

 

Semeria Y. ; 1978 ; Observations on the behavior of imagoes of Mantispa styriaca Neuroptera Planipennia Mantispidae toward some Mantidae orthoptera.

Source : Bulletin Mensuel de la Societe Linneenne de Lyon ; ; 47 (4) : 187-195

abstract: The efficiency of prehensile legs of the Mantispidae and the Mantidae are compared. The morphologic differences related to function are analyzed.

 

Sheng, J. K. ; 1989 ; Preliminary studies on bionomics of Podagrion philippinse and P. chinense parasitic in eggs of some mantids. [Chinese]

Source : Forest Pest & Disease. ; 1001-5701 ; . 1, 18-20

abstract: In northern Jiangxi, China, Podagrion philippinensis and P. chinense [P. sinensis] are the 2 main chalcids parasitic on the eggs of Heirodula patellifera and Tenodera aridifolia sinensis. There were 1-2 generations/year of the parasitoids, and late-staged larvae overwintered inside the host eggs. Eclosion of the 1st generation was most abundant during late May to early June, that of generation 2 during early to the middle of October. The proportion of females was up to 70.42% of P. philippinensis and 65.15% of P. sinensis. A key to the species is provided.

 

ShiraKi, T. ; 1911 ; Phasmiden und Mantiden Japans

Source : Annot. Zool. Jap Tokyo ; 0003-5092 ; 7(5) : 291 331 taf 12

abstract: espéces non traitées

 

Singh, R. N. ; 1994 ; First record of Podagrion sp. as a parasitoid of Hierodulla bipapilla (Mantidae :

Source : Bulletin of Entomology ; 0013-8762 ; 35: 1-2, 166-167

abstract: The torymid Podagrion sp. is recorded as a parasitoid of the praying mantis Hierodula bipapilla for the first time. The mantid attacks early stage larvae of the tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta.

 

Slifer, E.H. ; 1968 ; Sense organs on the antennal flagellum of a prayin mantis, Tenodera angustipennis, and of two related species (Mantodea)

Source : Journal of Morphology ; 0022-2887/0362-2525 ; 124: 105 116

Smith K G V. ; 1992 ; Records of mantids catching hummingbirds.

Source : Entomologist's Monthly Magazine ; 0013-8908 ; 128 (1540-1543) : 257

Southcott, R. V. ; 1986 ; Medical ill-effects of Australian primitive winged and wingless insects.

Source : Records of the Adelaide Children's Hospital ; 0314-612X ; 3: 3, 277-356.

abstract: A review is given of Australian insects which have been implicated as biting man or causing allergies in man. The groups covered are: Thysanura; Ephemeroptera; Odonata; Blattaria; Isoptera; Mantodea; Dermaptera; Orthoptera; Psocoptera; Mallophaga; Anoplura; Homoptera; Heteroptera; and Thysanoptera. For each, aspects of the medical importance and natural history are given. Biting by thrips (Thysanoptera) is discussed in more detail.

 

Srivastava Y N ; 1983 ; Studies on predation rate of preying mantid Mantis relogiosa L. against desert locust and

Source : Indian Journal of Entomology ; 0367-8288 ; . 45: 4, 348-352, recd. 1985

abstract: The development and biology of Mantis religiosa are described on the basis of a laboratory study carried out in India. Observations on the rate of predation on Schistocerca gregaria showed that a single female of M. religiosa consumed an average of 22.1 first-instar nymphs, 16.8 second-instar nymphs, 10.7 third-instar nymphs, 4.9 fourth-instar nymphs, 3.4 fifth-instar nymphs or 1.6 adults of S. gregaria in 24 h.

 

Srivastava Y N ; 1987 ; A strange case of Spathosternum-sp predating upon mantid Mantis-religiosa.

Source : Indian Journal of Entomology ; 0367-8288 ; 49 (4):1989). 573.

abstract: During laboratory experiments, Spathosternum prasiniferum prasiniferum, a pasture pest, which was used as prey for Mantis religiosa, was observed to prey on the mantid during its final moult, although plenty of grass was available for the grasshoppers. The possible reasons for this behaviour are discussed.

 

Suckling, D.M. ; 1984 ; Laboratory studies on the praying mantis Orthodera ministralis mantodea mantidae.

Source : New Zealand Entomologist ; ; 8 : 96-101

abstract: Aspects of the biology of the mantid O. ministralis (Fabricius) were studied in the laboratory. Oothecae contained an average of 34 eggs/case, with a mean length of 11.3 mm. Oothecal and nymphal development was temperature dependent, and 6 instars were found. Adult female mantids consumed up to 6 large blowflies (Calliphoridae) in 6 h, with a mean of 2.5 flies/female, and up to 26 Musca domestica (L.) in 3 h, with a mean of 17.5 flies/female. Cannibalism among 3rd and 4th instar nymphs was highly significantly (P < 0.01) reduced by the presence of Drosophila melanogaster (Meig.), and highly significantly increased (P < 0.01) at the higher mantid density. Cannibalism by 4th instar nymphs on 1st instar nymphs was very highly significantly (P < 0.001) reduced by the presence of D. melanogaster and a complex environment, and very highly significantly (P < 0.001) increased by a

 

Sukul N C. ; 1994 ; Anti-predator strategy of larval aggregation pattern in Aspidomorpha miliaris (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera).

Source : Entomon ; 0377-9335 ; 19 (3-4) : 125-130

abstract: The larvae of a tortoise beetle, Aspidomorpha miliaris (F.) (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) remain in clusters, each in the form of a disc during resting periods. Most of the members of a cluster react synchronously by moving the tip of their exuviae attached to their tail upward to any object approaching them thereby simulating a giant spider. During midday feeding, the larvae disperse and arrange themselves in a linear fashion. The palatability of the larvae to probable predators available in their environment, was tested by offering the larvae individually as well as in natural clusters to lizards, birds, mantids and spiders. The larvae were found to be unpalatable to lizards, birds and mantids probably because of their feeding on toxic plants, Ipomoea fistulosa Mart, ex. Spiders were found to prey on an isolated larva but not on a cluster. The grubs in cluster appeared to evade predation by spiders by a sort of cooperative

 

Synder, W.E., ; ; 1995 ; Egg hatch phenology and intraguil predation between two mantid species

Source : Oecologia (Berlin)/=Oecologia (Heidelberg) ; 0029-8549/0013-8797 ; 104 (4): 496 500

abstract: Relative timing of egg hatch between two co-occurring, congeneric mantids, Tenodera angustipennis and T. sinensis, was experimentally manipulated in replicated field enclosures to test the importance of intraguild predation to survivorship and development of T. angustipennis. T. angustipennis is normally smaller than its congener because of later egg-hatch. Delaying introduction of T. sinensis relative to normal egg hatch phenology reduced mortality for T. angustipennis, but did not affect its rate of development. The results indicate that intraguild predation by normally earlier-hatching T. sinensis can be an important factor in the early life history of T. angustipennis, but that interspecific competition is not a strong selective factor in developmental asynchrony between these two species.

 

Tan Zhenghuai ; 1997 ; Comparison of pharmacological studies on Ootheca Mantidis. [Chinese]

Source : Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi ; 1001-5302 ; 22(8):496-499, 513

abstract: The pharmacological effects of three species of Ootheca Mantidises were compared. The results indicate that Tenodera sinensis can increase the index of testis and thymus gland, and has an antidiuretic effect in mice; Statilia maculate can prolong the swimming time and ordinary pressing anoxia, increase the index of spleen and thymus gland, raise the temperature in mice, decrease the content of LPO in liver of the hypercholesteremia rats, and has an antidiuretic effect; Hierodula patellifera can increase the index of testis and thymus gland, raise the temperature in mice, and decrease the content of LPO in liver of the hypercholesteremia rats. The LD-50 of the three species of

 

Terra, P.S. ; 1996 ; Sexual behaviour of Cardiopetra brachyptera (Mantodea)

Source : Revista Brasileira Entomologia ; 0085-5626 ; 40(1): 3 7

Terra, P.S. ; 1982 ; New genera and new species of south american mantids mantodea mantidae.

Source : Revista Brasileira Entomologia ; 0085-5626 ; 26 (3-4) : 327-332

abstract: New taxa of South American mantids (Mantodea, Mantidae) are described: Galapagia amazonica, sp. nov. (Brazil, Para), Musoniola conservatrix sp. nov., M. venezuelana, sp. nov., (Venezuela); EMBOICY mirim, gen. et sp. nov. (Brazil, Sao Paulo); CALOPTEROMANTIS hebardi, gen. et sp. nov. (Ecuador); PIZAIA seabrai (Piza) gen. et comb. nov. (Musoniella seabrai) (Brazil), which is redescribed.

 

Terra, P.S. ; 1996 ; Maternal care in Photina amplipennis Stal (Mantodea)

Source : Revista Brasileira Entomologia ; 0085-5626 ; 40(1): 9 10

abstract: Egg care was observed in two females of the neotropical praying mantis Photina amplipennis Stal (Photininae). The female rests on the top of her ootheca throughout the incubation period. For a few days after emergence the nymphs and the female stay near the ootheca.

 

Terra, P.S. ; 1995 ; Systematic revision of the Neotropical genera of praying mantis (Mantodea).

Source : Revista Brasileira Entomologia ; 0085-5626 ; 39(1): 13 94

abstract: The Neotropical genera of praying mantis are revised. Seventy four genera are recognized and grouped in six families. A key to the Neotropical families, subfamilies and genera is Presented. New taxa: Raptrix, gen. n. (Acanthopidae, Acontistinae); Antemninae, subfam. n. (Vatidae). New synonyms proposed: Hymenopodidae Chopard, 1949 = Acanthopidae Burmeister, 1838; Acontistella Beier, 1929 and Metaphotina Piza, 1964 = Acontista Saussure, 1869 (Acanthopidae, Acontistinae); Epaphroditinae Giglio-Tos, 1919 = Acanthopinae Burmeister, 1838 (Acanthopidae); Decimia Stal, 1877 (non Walker, 1856) and Decimiana Uvarov, 1940 = Acanthops Serville, 1831 (Acanthopidae, Acanthopinae); Navimons Piza, 1970 = Leptomiopteryx Chopard, 1912 (Thespidae, Pseudomiopteriginae); Navimons amapaensis Piza, 1970 = Leptomiopteryx dispar Chopard, 1912. Trachymiopteryx Rehn, 1920 = Anamiopteryx Giglio-Tos, 1915 (Thespidae, Pseudomiopteriginae); Piracicaba Piza, 1967 = Eumiopteryx Giglio-Tos, 1915 (Thespidae, Pseudomiopteriginae); Cnephomantis Rehn, 1920 and Antimiopteryx Giglio-Tos, 1927 = Miobantia Giglio-Tos, 1917 (Thespidae, Miopteryginae); Metathespis Piza, 1968 = Chloromiopteryx Giglio-Tos, 1915 (Thespidae, Miopteryginae); Metathespis modesta Piza, 1968 and Metathespis precaria Piza, 1968 = Chloromiopteryx thalassina (Burmeister, 1838); Oligonichinae Beier, 1964 = Oligonicinae Giglio-Tos, 1919 (Thespidae); Paradiabantia Piza, 1963 = Diabantia Giglio-Tos, 1915 (Thespidae, Oligonicinae); Mionycoides Rehn, 1935 = Pseudomusonia Werner, 1925 (Thespidae, Oligonicinae); Isomantis Giglio-Tos, 1917 = Stagmomantis Saussure, 1869 (Vatidae, Stagmomantinae); Tauromantis Giglio-Tos, 1917 = Phasmomantis Saussure, 1869 (Vatidae, Stagmomantinae); Photiomantis Piza, 1968 = Photinella Giglio-Tos, 1915 (Vatidae, Photininae); Guaraunia Rehn, 1941 = Paraphotina Giglio-Tos, 1915 (Vatidae, Photininae); Brachypteromantis Piza, 1960 = Coptopteryx Saussure, 1869 (Vatidae, Photininae). New combinations proposed: Acontista amazonica (Beier, 1927); Acontista ecuadorica (Hebard, 1924); Acontista irioides (Hebard, 1922); Acontista piracicabensis (Piza, 1964); Acontista travassosi (Jantsch, 1986); Raptrix fusca (Olivier, 1792); Raptrix fuscata (Stoll, 1813); Raptrix perspicua (Fabricius, 1787); Anamiopteryx tuberculata (Rehn, 1920); Eumiopteryx bicentenaria (Piza, 1967); Musoniella fragilis (Piza, 1965); Miobantia ciliata (Stal, 1850); Miobantia fuscata (Giglio-Tos, 1915); Miobantia nebulosa (Giglio-Tos, 1915); Miobantia phryganea (Saussure, 1869); Miobantia rustica (Fabricius, 1781); Diabantia perparva (Piza, 1973); Bantia nana (Piza, 1969); Bantia simoni (Chopard, 1912); Pseudomusonia fera (Saussure & Zehntner, 1894);

 

Terra, P.S. ; 1991 ; New species of xystropeltis rehn mantodea vatidae.

Source : Revista Brasileira Entomologia ; 0085-5626 ; 35 (3) : 579-582

abstract: Xystropeltis quadrilobata, sp. n., from Ilheus (State of Bahia, Brazil) is described and figured.

 

Thorens, P. ; 1997 ; Atlas de distribution des orthopteres de Suisse: sauterelles, grillons, criquets (Orthoptera), mante religieuse (Mantodea)

Source : Centre Suisse de Cartographie de la Faune (CSCF), ; 2-88414-010-7 ; 236 pp.

abstract: Neuchatel, Switzerland Information on the Orthoptera of Switzerland is presented, including: history of research in Switzerland; general information; systematics; fauna; methodology; general distribution; phenology; altitude; habitats; distribution in Switzerland; status and threats; information on species (with distribution maps and graphs of altitude and phenology); and species that are introduced, non-established, potentially present, of doubtful status. Indexes are provided.

 

Thorne, B.L ; 1992 ; Phylogeny of the Dictyoptera.

Source : Systematic Entomology ; 0307-6970 ; 17: 253-268.

abstract: Relationships among six key dictyopteran taxa (Mantodea: Blattodea (excluding Cryptocercidae); Cryptocercidae; Mastotermes darwiniensis, Termopsidae and Kalotermitidae Isoptera) are analysed based on seventy morphological, developmental and behavioural characters. The fossil record and the 'living fossil' genera Cryptocercus, Mastotermes and Archotermopsis are discussed in detail. Exact analysis of the character state matrix by implicit enumeration (Hennig86) resulted in one cladogram, strongly supporting Blattodea + Cryptocercidae as a sister sgroup to Mantodea, with the Isoptera as a sister group to that complex. Arrangements within the termites are equivocal, with Termopsidae and Mastotermes darwiniensis possible as the relatively most primitive element of Isoptera. Abstract Relationships among six key dictyopteran taxa (Mantodea: Blattodea (excluding Cryptocercidae); Cryptocercidae; Mastotermes darwiniensis, Termopsidae and Kalotermitidae Isoptera) are analysed based on seventy morphological, developmental and behavioural characters. The fossil record and the 'living fossil' genera Cryptocercus, Mastotermes and Archotermopsis are discussed in detail. Exact analysis of the character state matrix by implicit enumeration (Hennig86) resulted in one cladogram, strongly supporting Blattodea + Cryptocercidae as a sister sgroup to Mantodea, with the Isoptera as a sister group to that complex. Arrangements within the termites are equivocal, with Termopsidae and Mastotermes darwiniensis possible as the relatively most primitive element of Isoptera.

 

Toledo, Z. D. A. de. ; 1988 ; Los ordenes de insectos. III. Pterygota. 3 Parte, Orden: Dictyoptera

Source : Miscelanea, Fundacion Miguel Lillo. Fundacion Miguel ; ; No. 82, 25pp

abstract: Lillo, Ministerio de Educacion y Justicia, Tucuman, This publication provides a general introduction to the Blattodea and Mantodea. Sections are included on morphology, ecology and behaviour, reproduction, and classification. Species and/or genera occurring in Argentina are indicated. A key to the families of the Mantodea are given.

 

Towner P. ; 1992 ; The opsin sequence of the mantid sphodromantis-sp

Source : COLLOQUE INSERM ; ISBN 2-85598-509-9; ; VOL. 221 :79-82

abstract: ISBN 0-86196-355-5

 

Towner P. ; 1994 ; The primary structure of mantid opsin.

Source : Gene (Amsterdam) ; 0378-1119 ; 143 (2): 227-231

abstract: The sequence encoding opsin from the mantid Sphodromantis sp. has been determined by dideoxynucleotide sequencing of PCR products from a cDNA derived from eye cup tissue. The 376-amino-acid (aa) residues show approx. 56% identity and 85% similarity to known insect opsins (Drosophila melanogaster and Calliphora erythrocephala). The predicted protein structure, based on the hydropathy profile and placement of key aa residues, reveals a seven- transmembrane structure typical of a rhodopsin. Unlike the previously characterized insect visual pigments which have 3-hydroxy retinal in their binding sites, mantid rhodopsin contains 11-cis retinal. Comparison of transmembrane sequences from the opsin family was performed in order to identify any specific aa substitutions which are able to

 

Towner P. ; 1997 ; Primary structure of locust opsins: A speculative model which may account for ultraviolet wavelength light detection.

Source : Vision Research ; 0042-6989 ; 37(5): 495-503

abstract: The sequences of two locust opsins have been determined by dideoxy nucleotide sequencing of PCR products from cDNA derived from eyecup tissue. The opsins (Lo1 and Lo2) are encoded by 381 and 380 amino acid residues, respectively, with hydropathy profiles and placement of key amino acid residues suggestive of a typical seven- transmembrane rhodopsin structure. The sequence alignment of Lo1 reveals significant homology to mantid opsin. These opsins contain retinal as their visual chromophore and have similarity to the Rh1 type sequences from Drosophila and Calliphora which use 3-hydroxy retinal. Lo2 is most closely related to the Rh3/4 type of visual pigments from Drosophila. The retinal-based opsins show reduced numbers of charged amino acids in the loop region connecting transmembrane segments V and VI compared to the 3-hydroxy retinal opsins. Sequence alignment of all the known insect visual pigments has shown that only those with maximal sensitivity in the blue/UV spectral range, Lo2 and the Rh3/4 opsins of Drosophila, have three charged amino acids in transmembrane segments II, IV and VII. The charged residue in transmembrane VII is two helical turns away from the positively charged Schiff base and could act directly as a counterion to it. From the secondary structure analysis of opsin, the two charged residues in transmembrane II and IV would be in close proximity to form a dipole. These polar motifs in Lo2 and Rh3/Rh4 could act in wavelength modulation of short wavelength sensitive pigments and substantiate the proposed external two-point charge model which accounts for the spectral sensitivity of visual pigments (Honig, B., Dinur, U., Nakanishi, K.,

 

Vahed, K. ; 1998 ; The function of nuptial feeding in insects: a review of empirical studies.

Source : Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical ; 0006-3231 ; 73: 1, 43-78.

abstract: Nuptial feeding encompasses any form of nutrient transfer from the male to the female during or directly after courtship and/or copulation. In insects, nuptial gifts may take the form of food captured or collected by the male, parts, or even the whole of the male's body, or glandular products of the male such as salivary secretions, external glandular secretions, the spermatophore and substances in the ejaculate. There has been considerable debate over the current function of nuptial feeding in insects, centred on the issue of whether nuptial gifts function as paternal investment (i.e. function to increase the fitness and/or number of the gift-giving male's own offspring) or as mating effort (i.e. function to attract females, facilitate coupling, and/or to maximize ejaculate transfer), although the 2 hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. Evidence for the potential of nuptial gifts to function as either paternal investment, mating effort, or both is reviewed for each form of nuptial feeding in each insect taxon for which sufficient data are available. Empirical evidence suggests that many diverse forms of nuptial feeding in different insect taxa function, at least in part, as mating effort. For example, nuptial prey and salivary masses in the Mecoptera, regurgitated food in Drosophila (Diptera), hind-wing feeding in Cyphoderris (Orthoptera) and the secretion of the male's cephalic gland in Neopyrochroa (Coleoptera) and Zorotypus (Zoraptera) appear to function to entice females to copulate and/or to facilitate coupling. Nuptial prey and salivary masses in the Mecoptera also appear to function to maximize ejaculate transfer which is also a form of mating effort, as do nuptial prey in Empis, external glandular secretions in Oecanthus and Allonemobius and the spermatophylax in gryllids and tettigoniids. Large spermatophores in, for example, the Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, also appear to be maintained by selection on the male to maximize ejaculate transfer and thereby counter the effects of sperm competition. In contrast to the large amount of evidence in support of the mating effort hypothesis, there is a relative lack of good evidence to support the paternal investment hypothesis. Certain studies have demonstrated an increase in the weight and/or number of eggs laid as a result of the receipt of larger gifts, or a greater number of gifts, in tettigoniids, gryllids, acridids, mantids, bruchid beetles, drosophilids and lepidopterans. However, virtually all of these studies (with the possible exception of studies of the spermatophylax in tettigoniids) have failed to control adequately for hormonal substances in the ejaculate that are known to affect female reproductive output. Furthermore, in at least 4 tettigoniids (but not in the case of 2 species), 3 lepidopterans, a drosophilid and probably also bruchids and bittacids, evidence suggests that the male has a low probability of

 

Vakarenko, E. G. ; 1994 ; On the occurrence of paratenic parasitism in nematodes of the suborder Filariata.

Source : Vestnik Zoologii ; 0084-5604 ; 94: 6, 78-80

abstract: Dicheilonema rheae, a parasite of Rhea americana, has been recorded in the Askania-Nova zoo in Ukraine since 1915. In the aviary, infective larvae of D. rheae were found in Acrididae and Tettigoniidae with prevalences of 27.8 and 80% respectively. The possibility that the Tettigoniidae become infected by ingesting Acrididae and that D. rheae is capable of paratenic parasitism was tested in a series of experiments. Infective larvae were fed to some 15 species of predatory insects and to Lacerta agilis. Mantis religiosa, the Tettigoniidae Platycleis affinis and Gampsocleis glabra, the Acrididae Acrida turrita and Calliptamus barbarus, and juvenile L. agilis became infected. In the insect body cavity, the nematode larvae began to encapsulate after 2 days; the capsules were thicker and more opaque in the paratenic than in the intermediate host. The larvae were found dead in a L. agilis dissected 3 months after

 

Vanschuytbroeck, P. ; 1980 ; Catalogue des Orthopoteroïdes conservés dans les collection entomologiques de l'Institut Royal des sciences naturelles de Belgique. BLATTOPTEROIDEA, 12 ième partie :

Source : bulletin de l'institut royal de sciences naturelles de ; 0374-6232 ; 52(29) : 1 53

abstract: Belgique / bul. hist. Nat. Belgique espèces non traitées

 

Vickery ; 1983 ; A monograph of the orthopteroid insects of Canada and adjacent regions. Vols. I and II.

Source : Lyman Entomological Museum Memoir No., Vol. . . ; ; 13 pp

abstract: McGill University The first volume of this monograph of the orthopteroid insects of Canada and adjacent regions (including Greenland, Alaska and most of the other adjacent states of the USA) includes a historical review and systematic treatment of the orders Dictuoptera (usually incorrectly given as Dictyoptera), Dermaptera, Notoptera, Cheleutoptera and Grylloptera. The second volume contains the systematic treatment of the Orthoptera proper, as well as the references, a glossary, a checklist, taxonomic index and index to host-plants, predators and parasites. The suborders Blattodea, Termitodea and Mantodea are included in the order Dictuoptera. The Dermaptera and Notoptera are recognised as being sister orders. The former order Orthoptera (s. l.) is divided into the 2 orders Grylloptera and Orthoptera (s. s.). The 369 orthopteroid species recognised in the whole region are in 146 genera and 35 families. Keys are provided to all the relevant taxa, and the notes on species include descriptions and information on synonymy, distribution, life-cycles, habits, habitats and economic importance.

 

Villar J L ; 1994 ; Pseudoyersinia paui (Bolivar, 1898): A new mantis for the Andalusian fauna (Mantodea,

Source : Graellsia ; 0367-5041 ; 50 . 173

Walcher, F. ; 1994 ; Visual deprivation and distance estimation in the praying mantis larva

Source : Physiological Entomology ; 0307-6962 ; 19: 230 240

abstract: Young larvae of the praying mantis, Tenodera sinensis Saussure, were placed on an off-centre island surrounded by a round arena with six black bars painted on a white inner wall. In this situation, it was shown that the horizontal peering movements of the head often seen in mantids are in fact used to measure distances; motion parallax may be involved in this process. Aimed jumps that followed peering were taken to be the distinct result of an absolute distance measurement. Specific visual deprivation such as painting over of certain parts of the eye with opaque black varnish or degeneration of the fovea with sulforhodamine showed that: absolute evaluation of distance is only possible with two fully intact eyes; the peering mechanism is under visual control; and visual experience has a long-term effect on

 

Wang, T. ; 1994 ; A new species of Hymenopus (Mantodea: Hymenopodidae: Hymenopodinae) from China.

Source : Entomotaxonomia ; 1000-7482 ; 16 (2): 79-81.

Wang, T. ; 1995 ; Research on the Chinese Tenodera (Mantodea: Mantidae).

Source : Acta Entomologica Sinica ; 0454-6296 ; 38 (2): 191-195.

abstract: Having compared the pronotum, the male genitalia and the subgenital plate characteristics of the Tenodera species, the author gives a thorough review of the 7 species, i. e. T. attenuata, T. angustipennis, T. stotzneri, T. aridifolia, T. sinensis, T. brevicollis Beier, stat. nov., T. caudafissilis, sp. nov., which can be checked out from the key at the beginning of this paper. The types and other materials are deposited in Shanghai Institute of Entomology, Academia

 

White, M.J D. ; 1965 ; Sex chromosomes and meiotic mechanisms in some African and Australian mantids.

Source : Chromosoma (berlin) verifier ; 0009-5915 ; 16(5):521-47

White, M.J D. ; 1975 ; An xy sec chromosome mechanism in a mantid with achiasmatic meiosis.

Source : Chromosoma (berlin) verifier ; 0009-5915 ; 51 (1) : 93-97.

abstract: An Australian mantid, Ima fusca, with 2n male equals 34, shows achiasmatic meiosis in the male, as in other Australian members of the subfamily Iridopteryginae. It is, however, unique among approximately 104 mantid species that have been studied cytologically, in having an XY sex chromosome mechanism. The X and Y chromosomes are not associated as a bivalent in first metaphase, but arrange themselves opposite one another on the spindle and

 

White, M.J D. ; 1972 ; Sex chromosomes of an australian mantid Rhodomantis pulchella.

Source : CHROMOSOMES TODAY, VOL. 3. PROCEEDINGS OF ; ; 307

abstract: A CONFERENCE. OXFORD, ENGLAND, SEPT. 22-25,

 

Whiting M F. ; 1997 ; The strepsiptera problem: Phylogeny of the holometabolous insect orders inferred from 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences and morphology

Source : Systematic Biology ; 1063-5157 ; 46(1): 1-68

abstract: Phylogenetic relationships among the holometabolous insect orders were inferred from cladistic analysis of nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (85 exemplars) and 28S rDNA (52 exemplars) and morphological characters. Exemplar outgroup taxa were Collembola (1 sequence), Ardiaeognatha (1), Ephemerida (1), Odonata (2), Plecoptera (2), Blattodea (1), Mantodea (1), Dermaptera (1), Orthoptera (1), Phasmatodea (1), Embioptera (1), Psocoptera (1), Phthiraptera (1), Hemiptera (4), and Thysanoptera (1). Exemplar ingroup taxa were Coleoptera: Archostemata (1), Adephaga (2), and Polyphaga (7); Megaloptera (1); Raphidioptera (1); Neuroptera (sensu stricto = Planipennia): Mantispoidea (2), Hemerobioidea (2), and Myrmeleontoidea (2); Hymenoptera: Symphyta (4) and Apocrita (19); Trichoptera: Hydropsychoidea (1) and Limnephiloidea (2); Lepidoptera: Ditrysia (3); Siphonaptera: Pulicoidea (1) and Ceratophylloidea (2); Mecoptera: Meropeidae (1), Boreidae (1), Panorpidae (1), and Bittacidae (2); Diptera: Nematocera (1), Brachycera (2), and Cyclorrhapha (1); and Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae (1), Myrmecolacidae (1), Elenchidae (1), and Stylopidae (3). We analyzed apprx 1 kilobase of 18S rDNA, starting 398 nucleotides downstream of the 5' end, and apprx 400 bp of 28S rDNA in expansion segment D3. Multiple alignment of the 18S and 28S sequences resulted in 1,116 nucleotide positions with 24 insert regions and 398 positions with 14 insert regions, respectively. All Strepsiptera and Neuroptera have large insert regions in 18S and 28S. The secondary structure of 18S insert 23 is composed of long stems that are GC rich in the basal Strepsiptera and AT rich in the more derived Strepsiptera. A matrix of 176 morphological characters was analyzed for holometabolous orders. Incongruence length difference tests indicate that the 28S + morphological data sets are incongruent but that 28S + 18S, 18S + morphology, and 28S + 18S + morphology fail to reject the hypothesis of congruence. Phylogenetic trees were generated by parsimony analysis, and clade robustness was evaluated by branch length, Bremer support, percentage of extra steps required to force paraphyly, and sensitivity analysis using the following parameters: gap weights, morphological character weights, methods of data set combination, removal of key taxa, and alignment region. The following are monophyletic under most or all combinations of parameter values: Holometabola, Polyphaga, Megaloptera + Raphidioptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Amphiesmenoptera (Tridioptera + Lepidoptera), Siphonaptera, Siphonaptera + Mecoptera, Strepsiptera, Diptera, and Strepsiptera + Diptera (Halteria). Antliophora (Mecoptera + Diptera + Siphonaptera + Strepsiptera), Mecopterida (Antliophora + Amphiesmenoptera), and Hymenoptera + Mecopterida are supported in the majority of total evidence analyses. Mecoptera may be paraphyletic because Boreus is often placed as sister group to the fleas; hence, Siphonaptera may be subordinate within Mecoptera. The 18S sequences for Priacma (Coleoptera: Archostemata), Colpocaccus (Coleoptera: Adephaga), Agulla (Raphidioptera), and Corydalus (Megaloptera) are nearly identical, and Neuropterida are monophyletic only when those two beetle sequences are removed from the analysis. Coleoptera are therefore paraphyletic under almost all combinations of parameter values. Halteria and Amphiesmenoptera have high Bremer support values and long branch lengths. The data do not support placement of Strepsiptera outside of Holometabola nor as sister group to

 

Wood, S.F. ; 1978 ; Notes on mantids (Stagmomantis, Iris) as possibl predators of conenose bugs (Triatoma, Paratriatoma)

Source : Pan-Pacific Ent. ; 0031-0603 ; 54: 17 18

abstract: Mantids, Stagmomantis californica and Iris oratoria, ate conenose bugs, Triatoma protracta protracta, T. p. navajoensis and Paratriatoma hirsuta in and out of the laboratory.

 ******* Predacious behaviour by Stagmomantis californica Rehn & Hebard on Triatoma protracta navajoensis Ryckman, and by Iris oratoria (L.) on the same reduviid and on T. protracta protracta (Uhl.) and Paratriatoma hirsuta Barber, is described from observations in the laboratory and field-cage in California in 1975-77. It is concluded that mantids that occur in natural microhabitats of triatomine reduviids, especially dens of the wood rat (Neotoma), would be most

 

Yager, D.D. ; 1996 ; Serially homologous ears perform frequency ranges fractionnation in the praying mantis Creobroter (Mantodea, Hymenopodidae).

Source : Journal of Comparative Physiology. A Sensory Neural ; 0340-7594 ; 178(4): 463 475

abstract: and Behavorial Physiology Unlike most praying mantises that have a single region of auditory sensitivity, species in the genus Creobroter have equally sensitive hearing at 2-4 and at 25-50 kHz and are relatively insensitivity at 10-15 kHz - they have a W-shaped audiogram. Ultrasonic sensitivity originates from an auditory organ in the ventral midline of the metathorax that closely resembles the ear of other mantises. Ablation experiments demonstrate that low frequency sensitivity derives from a serially homologous mesothoracic auditory organ. Extracellular recordings suggest that these two ears operate largely, if not entirely, independently of one another in the thorax. The low frequency response has a longer latency, more action potentials per stimulus, and different patterns of change with increasing SPL than the high frequency response. Separate interneurons mediate responses in the two frequency ranges, but our evidence suggests that they are two serially homologous sets of cells. Neither auditory organ shows any physiological evidence of directional sensitivity. Ultrasound triggers a set of behaviors in flying hymenopodid mantises much like those in other mantises,

 

Yager, D.D. ; 1996 ; Nymphal development of the auditory system in the praying mantis Hierodula membranacea Burmeister (Dictyoptera, Mantidae)

Source : Journal of Comparative Neurology ; 0021-9967 ; 364(2): 199 210

abstract: Like other praying mantises, Hierodula membranacea has a single midline ear on the ventral surface of the metathorax. The ear comprises a deep groove with two tympana forming the walls. A tympanal organ on each side contains 30-40 scolopophorous sensillae with axons that terminate in the metathoracic ganglion in neuropil that does not match the auditory neuropil of other insects. Nymphal development of the mantis ear proceeds in three major stages: 1) The tympanal organ is completely formed with a full complement of sensillae before hatching; 2) the infolding and rotations that form the deep groove are completed primarily over the first half of nymphal development; and 3) over the last five instars (of ten), the tympana thicken and broaden to their adult size and shape, and the impedance-matching tracheal sacs also enlarge and move to become tightly apposed to the inner surfaces of the tympana. Auditory sensitivity gradually increases beginning with the fifth instar and closely parallels tympanum and tracheal sac growth. Late instar nymphs have auditory thresholds of 70-80 dB sound pressure level (SPL). Appropriate connections of afferents to a functional interneuronal system are clearly present by the eighth instar and possibly much earlier. The pattern of auditory system ontogeny in the mantis is similar to that in locusts and in noctuid moths, but it differs from crickets. In evolutionary terms, it is significant that the metathoracic anatomy of newly hatched mantis nymphs matches very closely the anatomy of the homologous regions in adult cockroaches, which are closely related to mantises but are without tympanal hearing, and in mantises that are thought to be primitively deaf. Abstract : Like other praying mantises, Hierodula membranacea has a single midline ear on the ventral surface of the metathorax. The ear comprises a deep groove with two tympana forming the walls. A tympanal organ on each side contains 30-40 scolopophorous sensillae with axons that terminate in the metathoracic ganglion in neuropil that does not match the auditory neuropil of other insects. Nymphal development of the mantis ear proceeds in three major stages: 1) The tympanal organ is completely formed with a full complement of sensillae before hatching; 2) the infolding and rotations that form the deep groove are completed primarily over the first half of nymphal development; and 3) over the last five instars (of ten), the tympana thicken and broaden to their adult size and shape, and the impedance-matching tracheal sacs also enlarge and move to become tightly apposed to the inner surfaces of the tympana. Auditory sensitivity gradually increases beginning with the fifth instar and closely parallels tympanum and tracheal sac growth. Late instar nymphs have auditory thresholds of 70-80 dB sound pressure level (SPL). Appropriate connections of afferents to a functional interneuronal system are clearly present by the eighth instar and possibly much earlier. The pattern of auditory system ontogeny in the mantis is similar to that in locusts and in noctuid moths, but it differs from crickets. In evolutionary terms, it is significant that the metathoracic anatomy of newly hatched mantis nymphs matches very closely the anatomy of the homologous regions in adult cockroaches, which are closely related to mantises but are without tympanal hearing, and in mantises that are thought to be primitively deaf. neuropil of other insects. Nymphal development of the mantis ear proceeds in three major stages: 1) The tympanal organ is completely formed with a full complement of sensillae before hatching; 2) the infolding and rotations that form the deep groove are completed primarily over the first half of nymphal development; and 3) over the last five instars (of ten), the tympana thicken and broaden to their adult size and shape, and the impedance-matching tracheal sacs also enlarge and move to become tightly apposed to the inner surfaces of the tympana. Auditory sensitivity gradually increases beginning with the fifth instar and closely parallels tympanum and tracheal sac growth. Late instar nymphs have auditory thresholds of 70-80 dB sound pressure level (SPL). Appropriate connections of afferents to a functional interneuronal system are clearly present by the eighth instar and possibly much earlier. The pattern of auditory system ontogeny in the mantis is similar to that in locusts and in noctuid moths, but it differs from crickets. In evolutionary terms, it is significant that the metathoracic anatomy of newly hatched mantis nymphs matches very

 

Yager, D.D. ; 1986 ; The cyclopean ear: a new sense for the praying mantis [Mantis religiosa].

Source : Science ; ; 231: 727 729

Yager, D.D. ; 1989 ; Audition in the praying mantis, Mantis religiosa L : identification of an interneuron mediating ultrasoni hearing

Source : Journal of Experimental Biology ; 0022-0949 ; 165: 471 493

abstract: Mantis religiosa possesses a single ear located in the ventral midline of the metathorax. The auditory nervous system was studied using both extracellular and intracellular techniques, and a mirror-image pair of interneurons (MR-501-T3) was identified in the metathoracic ganglion that mediates ultrasonic hearing. Arguments are presented, based on the physiological results presented and on existing behavioural data, that MR-501-T3 is part of an ultrasonic warning system that may provide an escape defence against nocturnally foraging bats.

 

Yago, M., ; 1989 ; Enzymic synthesis of papiliochrome II a yellow pigment in the wings of papilionid

Source : Insect Biochemistry ; 0020-1790 ; 19 (7): 673-678.

abstract: A crude enzyme fraction, prepared from the left colleterial gland of the praying mantis, Tenodera aridifolia sinensis, had polyphenoloxidase activity and hydroxylated the side chain .beta.-carbon of N-acyldopamine. This fraction catalyzed the synthesis of papiliochrome II, when incubated with N-.beta.-alanyldopamine and L-kynurenine. Other enzyme preparations obtained from the silk and pupal cuticle of the Japanese giant silkmoth, Dictyoploca japonica

 

Yago, M., ; 1984 ; The identification of 5 n acyldopamine glucosides in the left colleterial gland of the praying mantid Hierodula patellifera.

Source : Insect Biochemistry ; 0020-1790 ; 14 (5) : 487-490

abstract: The glucosides so far identified in the left colleterial glands of 4 mantid species are 3-O-.beta.-glucosides of N- acyldopamines, the acyl groups being acetyl, malonyl and N-acetyl-.beta.-alanyl (Kawasaki and Yago, 1983). The gland of another mantid species, H. patellifera, contained as many as 5 glucosides, the 3 mentioned above and an additional two identified as 3-O-.beta.-glucosides of N-.beta.-alanyldopamine and N-(N-malonyl-.beta.-

 

Yago, M., ; 1983 ; The identification of n acyl dopamine glucosides in the left colleterial gland of the praying mantids Mantis religiosa Statilia maculata and Tenodera angustipennis.

Source : Insect Biochemistry ; 0020-1790 ; 14 (1) : 7-10

abstract: Earlier work (Kawasaki and Yago, 1983) identified 2 glucosides, 3-O-.beta.-glucosides of N-acetyldopamine and N- malonyldopamine, in the left colleterial gland of T. aridifolia sinensis. The glucosides of 3 other mantid species were examined. The 2 glucosides of T. angustipennis were the same as those of T. aridifolia sinensis. The glucoside of S. maculata was 3-O-.beta.-glucosyl-N-acetyldopamine, and that of M. religiosa 3-O-.beta.-glucosyl-N-(N-acetyl-.beta.- alanyl)dopamine. All of the mantid glucosides so far examined are 3-O-.beta.-glucosides of N-acyldopamines.

 

Yago, M., ; 1990 ; Enzymic activitie involved in the oothecal sclerotization of the praying mantid, Tenoder aridifolia sinensis Saussure

Source : Insect Biochemistry ; 0020-1790 ; 20: 7, 745 750

abstract: The enzyme(s) responsible for the sclerotization of mantid ootheca is secreted by the left colleterial gland. From an extract of the glands of Tenodera aridifolia sinensis, two soluble enzyme fractions of different activities were obtained. One fraction acted on N-acetyldopamine (NADA), a precursor of a representative sclerotizing agent, and produced NADA-quinone. The other did not act on NADA itself but converted the quinone to a highly reactive intermediate, such as quinone methide, which was able to react nonenzymically with nucleophilic compounds. Other insoluble enzyme preparations obtained from the silk and pupal cuticle of the Japanese giant silk moth, Dictyoploca japonica,

 

Yamawaki, Y. ; 1998 ; Responses to non-locomotive prey models by the praying mantis, Tenodera angustipennis

Source : Journal of Ethology ; 0289-0771 ; 16: 1, 23-27

abstract: Adult females of Tenodera angustipennis were presented with computer-generated images, and the attractiveness of 'non-locomotive' prey models was examined. Mantids fixated and struck the 'body and leg' model (consisting of an immobile black square on a white background with 2 black lines oscillating randomly at its sides) more frequently than the 'leg' model (only oscillating lines) or the 'body' model (static square only). This indicates that the model consisting of a static object and moving lines effectively elicits strike behaviour, although it is 'non-locomotive'.

 

Yan, J. J. ; 1981 ; Studies on the biology of six species of mantids [in China].

Source : Natural Enemies of Insects ; ; 3: 3, 24-30

Yaseen A E. ; 1996 ; Karyological studies on five Egyptian species of Dictyoptera (Pterygota: Insecta).

Source : Cytologia (Tokyo) ; 0011-4545 ; 61(3): 285-295.

abstract: Chromosomes in five species of the order Dictyoptera Periplaneta americana, Blattella germanica, Supella supellectilium, Mantis religiosa and Sphadromantis bioculata have been studied. In Periplaneta americana (Family Blattidae), the diploid chromosome number of 32 + XX in Females and 32 + XO in males was observed, while the diploid chromosome number in the two species Blattella germanica and Supella supellectilium (Family Blattillidae) were 22 + XX in female, 22 + XO males and 18 + XX in females, 18 + XO in males respectively. The diploid chromosome number for the two species Mantis religiosa and Sphadromantis bioculata (Family Mantidae) were determined to be 26 + XX in females, 26 + XO in males and 22 + XX in females, 22 + XO in males respectively. Karyotypic data for these five species had been studied in details. These results are reported for the first times in Egypt. ******** Chromosomes of Periplaneta americana, Blattella germanica, Supella supellectilium [S. longipalpa], Mantis religiosa and Sphadromantis bioculata [Sphodromantis viridis] were studied. In P. americana (Blattidae), the diploid chromosome number of 32 + XX in females and 32 + XO in males was observed, while the diploid chromosome numbers in B. germanica and Supella longipalpa (Blattellidae) were 22 + XX in females, 22 + XO males and 18 + XX in females, 18 + XO in males, respectively. The diploid chromosome numbers for M. religiosa and Sphodromantis

 

Yersin M.A. ; 1860 ; Quelques Orthoptères nouveaux ou peu connus d*Europe

Source : Annales de la Société Entomologique de France ; 0037-9271 ; 8(3) : 509-5017, 534-537

Yu, C. H. ; 1980 ; Comparative anatomy of the alimentary canal of the 4 species of Orthoptera.

Source : Korean Journal of Entomology ; ; 10: 2, 13-20

abstract: The comparative anatomy of the alimentary canal is described and illustrated for 4 species of Orthoptera (in its widest sense including Blattaria) known in Korea, including Acrida cinerea (Thnb.) and Tenodera aridifolia sinensis Sauss. (Paratenodera sinensis). The alimentary canal of A. cinerea is a straight tract without cardiac or pyloric valves or proventriculus; undigested materials are therefore passed directly into the hind-gut. The fore-gut of T. a. sinensis is the longest of any of the species studied, and the proventriculus is also well-developed, but the cardiac valve is rather short; the pyloric valve is composed of mid-gut epithelial cells in the pyloric portion, and the lumen of the ileum is narrow but that of the rectum is enlarged. ADDITIONAL ABSTRACT: The comparative anatomy of the alimentary canal is described and illustrated for Blattella germanica (L.) and 3 species of Orthoptera known in Korea. The proventriculus of B. germanica is rather small but well-developed; the cardiac valve is long and projects into the mid- gut, and the epithelial cells of the anterior hind-gut form the pyloric valve similar to the cardiac valve.

 

Zach P ; 1995 ; Forest zonation and faunal assemblages of the Pol'ana Biosphere Reserve UNESCO

Source : Ekologia-Bratislava ; 7143-0408/ non ; 14(4): 353-365.

abstract: 0018-067X Selected faunal assemblages (Orthoptera, Mantodea, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Aves) have been investigated along a transect (464-1458 m a.s.l.) covering four generalized forest zones of the Pol'ana Biosphere Reserve (central Slovakia). Vertical distribution of insects and birds in the area of interest are affected by a number of factors, of which the geographical position of the Pol'ana massif, its geomorphology and substratum, various anthropogenic impacts (mostly deforestation and pasture) as well as requirements of species play an important role. Results support importance of

 

Zack, S. ; 1978 ; The effects of fore leg amputation on head grooming behavior in the praying mantis Sphodromantis lineola.

Source : Journal of Comparative Physiology. A Sensory Neural ; 0340-7594 ; 125 (3) : 253-258

abstract: and Behavorial Physiology Amputation of the praying mantid's foreleg, which is used in cleaning the head, does not interfere with the release of head grooming, although a cleaning function is no longer performed. Even after several weeks, the mantids continue to execute the now non-functional grooming movement pattern. All 3 functional units of individual head grooming cycles are present and the coordination between head and foreleg movements is essentially normal. The distribution and mean number of cycles per grooming episode is similar to that of intact mantids except for a slightly greater number of episodes with many cycles. As in intact animals, the increase in duration of successive cycles is brought about by an increase in the duration of all 3 functional units. The duration of functional unit 3, cleaning the femur brush, is much shorter in amputees than in intact animals (0.25-0.70 of intact), clearly demonstrating a feedback effect

 

Zanuncio J C. ; 1992 ; Methodology for biological studies of mantodea in laboratory conditions

Source : Anais Da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil ; 0301-8059 ; 21 (2):233-238.

abstract: The methodology developed was: a wood box with 92 .times. 30 .times. 12 cm; three vials of 3000 ml were connected at the inferior part of the box, where Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) flies were put; twenty four vials of 170 ml were put in the upper part of the box and one Mantodea nymph was raised to adult in each vial. This methodology prove to be successful in raising Acontiotespis perspicua (Mantodea: Mantidae); 55% of nymph viability

 

Zhang G Z ; 1989 ; three species of mantidae new records from china

Source : Entomotaxonomia ; 1000-7482 ; 11 (3): 184.

Zhang G Z ; 1992 ; Two new species of the genus hestiasula saussure from china mantidae hymenopodinae.

Source : Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica ; 1000-0739 ; 17 (1) : 67-70.

abstract: Hestiasula seminigra sp. nov., is similar to H. kastneri Beier, but differs from the latter in several characters. Hestiasula basinigra sp. nov., is allied to H. major Beier, but separated by its relatively smaller size.

 

Zhang G Z ; 1991 ; A new species of the genus hierodulella giglio-tos mantodea mantidae from china.

Source : Entomotaxonomia ; 1000-7482 ; 13 (4): 235-236.

abstract: Hierodulella albomaculata sp. nov., has tegmina with marginal field green and discoidal field brown. Stigma cream color with a big white fleck at the side. Fore coxae with near mesal and distal of internal surface black. Fore femora with mesal and near distal of internal surface blackish brown. Measurements in millimeters. Body length 70, pronotum length 24, metazona length 5, tegmina length 57.

 

Zhang G Z ; 1990 ; A new species of the genus hierodula mantodea mantidae from china. [chinese]

Source : Entomotaxonomia ; 1000-7482 ; 12 (2): 113-114.

abstract: The new species Hierodula latipronotum is described and figured. It is similar to H. valida.

 

Zhang G. ; 1983 ; New species of Statilia from china Mantodea Mantidae.

Source : Entomotaxonomia ; 1000-7482 ; 5 (3) : 251-254

abstract: Five species including 3 new ones, are discussed: S. chayuensis, S. flavobrunnea, S. viridibrunnea, S. nemoralis and S. maculata. A key to the 5 spp. is given.

 

Zubrzycki, I. Z. ; 1994 ; Conformational study on an insect neuropeptide of the AKH/RPCH-family by combined 1H NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanics.

Source : Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications ; 0006-291X ; 198: 1, 228-235

abstract: Peptides of the AKH/RPCH family are mainly involved in influencing energy metabolism in insects, i.e. regulating carbohydrate and/or lipid breakdown in the fat body. The solution conformation of a member of this family, the peptide Emp-AKH from a praying mantis (Empusa pennata), was studied. It was characterized using 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular modelling. The proton spectrum of the Emp-AKH peptide was assigned by sequential assignment procedure. Proton-proton distances were derived from the volumes of cross- peaks in 2-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectra. The data indicate that the Emp-AKH peptide adopts a beta -sheet structure for amino acids 1-5 and a beta -turn for amino acids at positions 5-8. The turn type